Chemistry: Cha…Cha…Cha…Change | Science Trek

Chemistry: Cha…Cha…Cha…Change | Science Trek


JOAN CARTAN-HANSEN, HOST:
CHEMISTRY IS THE SCIENCE OF
CHANGE. WHEN YOU LEARN
ABOUT CHEMISTRY, YOU LEARN
ABOUT MATTER AND HOW IT REACTS.
FIND OUT MORE ABOUT
CHEMISTRY.
CARTAN-HANSEN: AN ATOM IS MADE
UP OF THREE PARTS-NEUTRONS,
PROTONS AND ELECTRONS.
THE PROTONS AND NEUTRONS COMBINE
TOGETHER TO MAKE THE NUCLEUS.
AND THE ELECTRONS CIRCLE AROUND
THE NUCLEUS MAKING UP AN ATOM.
AN ELEMENT IS A SUBSTANCE THAT
CONTAINS ONLY ONE KIND OF ATOM.
SCIENTISTS HAVE DISCOVERED AT
LEAST 117 DIFFERENT ELEMENTS IN
THE UNIVERSE SO FAR, BUT ONLY 94
OF THEM ARE ACTUALLY FOUND
NATURALLY ON EARTH-THINGS LIKE
HELIUM AND CARBON.
ELEMENTS ARE GROUPS TOGETHER IN
A CHART CALLED THE PERIODIC
TABLE.
EACH ELEMENT FITS INTO ITS OWN
SQUARE.
EACH ELEMENT HAS ITS OWN
CHEMICAL SYMBOL, ITS OWN ATOMIC
NUMBER-THAT IS HOW MANY PROTONS
ARE IN THAT ELEMENT’S NUCLEUS.
AND ITS OWN ATOMIC MASS, WHICH
IS HOW MANY PROTONS AND
NEUTRONS, FIT IN THE ELEMENT’S
NUCLEUS.
STUDENT: AN ELEMENT IS A
SUBSTANCE THAT CONTAINS JUST ONE
KIND OF ATOM.
GOLD ONLY CONTAINS GOLD ATOMS,
BUT IF YOU COMBINE TWO KINDS OF
ATOMS LIKE HYDROGEN AND OXYGEN
YOU GET WATER-THAT’S KNOWN AS A
COMPOUND.
CARTAN-HANSEN: CHEMISTS STUDY
HOW ELEMENTS REACT WHEN THEY
COMBINE.
SOME REACTIONS ARE SPONTANEOUS
LIKE RUST ON IRON.
OTHER ELEMENTS NEED HEAT OR
PRESSURE TO REACT.
ALL CHEMICAL REACTIONS EITHER
ABSORB OR RELEASE ENERGY.
STUDENT: IF YOU WANT TO SEE A
CHEMICAL REACTION IN YOUR MOUTH,
TRY BITING DOWN ON A WINTERGREEN
LIFESAVER WHILE LOOKING IN THE
MIRROR.
OH I FORGOT TO TELL YOU, YOU
HAVE TO DO IT IN THE DARK.
CARTAN-HANSEN: ONE OF THE
IMPORTANT THINGS ABOUT CHEMICAL
REACTIONS IS THAT THEY’RE
PREDICTABLE.
SCIENTISTS CAN COUNT ON THE SAME
THING HAPPENING EVERY TIME THE
ELEMENTS ARE COMBINED.
COOKING IS A CHEMICAL REACTION,
INGREDIENTS COMBINED TOGETHER
AND YOU HEAT THEM UP.
AND BECAUSE CHEMICAL REACTIONS
ARE PREDICTABLE YOU KNOW YOUR
COOKIES WILL TURN OUT THE SAME
WAY EACH TIME YOU MAKE THE
RECIPE.
“YUM!”
CARTAN-HANSEN: SCIENTISTS YOU
CHEMICAL REACTIONS TO MAKE
THINGS, LIKE THE PLASTICS IN
YOUR TOYS, OR FOR THE RUBBER IN
YOUR BIKE’S TIRES.
AND CHEMICAL REACTIONS KEEP US
ALIVE-BREATHING OR RESPIRATION
IS A CHEMICAL REACTION.
(BREATHING SOUNDS)
AND SO IS DIGESTION.
CHEMICALS HELP US DO THINGS,
MAKE THINGS-IT STARTS WITH ATOMS
THAT MAKE UP ELEMENTS.
ELEMENTS COMBINE TO MAKE
COMPOUNDS AND COMBINING ELEMENTS
OR COMPOUNDS RESULTS IN CHEMICAL
REACTIONS.
SO CHEMISTRY IS PART OF JUST
ABOUT EVERYTHING WE DO.
CARTAN-HANSEN: IF YOU WANT TO
LEARN MORE, HEAD TO THE SCIENCE
TREK WEBSITE.
OR CHECK OUR RELATED VIDEOS AND
IF YOU LIKE SCIENCE TREK, BE
SURE TO CLICK THE SUBSCRIBE
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