City of Manila | Wikipedia audio article

City of Manila | Wikipedia audio article


Manila (; Filipino: Maynilà, pronounced [majˈnilaʔ]
or [majniˈla]), officially the City of Manila (Filipino: Lungsod ng Maynilà [luŋˈsod
nɐŋ majˈnilaʔ]), is the capital of the Philippines. It is one of the most densely populated cities
proper in the world. It was the first chartered city by virtue
of the Philippine Commission Act 183 on July 31, 1901 and gained autonomy with the passage
of Republic Act No. 409 or the “Revised Charter of the City of Manila” on June 18, 1949.The
Spanish city of Manila was founded on June 24, 1571, by Spanish conquistador Miguel López
de Legazpi. The date is regarded as the city’s official
founding date. Manila was also the seat of power for most
of the country’s colonial rulers. It is home to many historic sites, some of
which were built during the 16th century. Manila has many of the Philippines’ firsts,
including the first university (1590), light station (1642), lighthouse tower (1846), water
system (1878), hotel (1889), electricity (1895), oceanarium (1913), stock exchange (1927),
flyover (1930s), zoo (1959), pedestrian underpass (1960), science high school (1963), city-run
university (1965), city-run hospital (1969), and rapid transit system (1984; also considered
as the first rapid transit system in Southeast Asia).The term “Manila” is commonly used to
refer to the whole metropolitan area, the greater metropolitan area or the city proper. The officially defined metropolitan area called
Metro Manila, the capital region of the Philippines, includes the much larger Quezon City and the
Makati Central Business District. It is the most populous region of the country,
one of the most populous urban areas in the world, and is one of the wealthiest regions
in Southeast Asia. The city proper is home to 1,780,148 people
in 2015, and is the historic core of a built-up area that extends well beyond its administrative
limits. With 71,263 people per square kilometer, Manila
is also the most densely populated city proper in the world.The city is located on the eastern
shores of Manila Bay. The Pasig River flows through the middle of
the city, dividing it into the north and south sections. Manila is made up of 16 administrative districts:
Binondo, Ermita, Intramuros, Malate, Paco, Pandacan, Port Area, Quiapo, Sampaloc, San
Andres, San Miguel, San Nicolas, Santa Ana, Santa Cruz, Santa Mesa and Tondo, while it
is divided into six districts for its representation in Congress and the election of the city council
members. In 2016, the Globalization and World Cities
Research Network listed Manila as an “alpha –” global city.==Etymology==
Maynilà, the Filipino name for the city, comes from the phrase may-nilà, which translates
to “where indigo is found.” Nilà is derived from the Sanskrit word nīla
(नील) which refers to indigo, and, by extension, to several plant species from which
this natural dye can be extracted. The Maynilà name is more likely in reference
to the presence of indigo-yielding plants growing in the area surrounding the settlement,
rather than Maynilà being known as a settlement that trades in indigo dye. This is because the settlement was founded
several hundred years before indigo dye extraction became an important economic activity in the
area in the 18th century. The native Tagalog name for the indigo plant,
tayum (or variations thereof) actually finds use in another toponym within the Manila area
— Tayuman (“where the indigo [plant] is”) — and elsewhere in the Philippines (e.g.,
Tayum, Abra; Tagum, Davao del Norte). Maynilà was eventually adopted into Spanish
as Manila.===May-nilad===An antiquarian and inaccurate etymology asserts
the origin of the city’s name as may-nilad (“where nilad is found”). Here, nilad is taken to be the name for one
of two littoral plant species: popularly, but incorrectly: the water hyacinth
(Eichhornia crassipes) which still grows on the banks of the Pasig River to this day. However, it is a recent introduction to the
Philippines from South America and therefore could not have been the plant species referred
to in the toponym. correctly: a shrub-like tree (Scyphiphora
hydrophyllacea, formerly Ixora manila Blanco) found in or near mangrove swamps, This tree
is the actual species that the Tagalog terms nilád or nilár refer to.From a linguistic
perspective it is unlikely for native Tagalog speakers to completely drop the final consonant
/d/ in nilad to arrive at the present form Maynilà. As an example, nearby Bacoor still retains
the final consonant of the old Tagalog word bakoód (“elevated piece of land”), even in
old Spanish renderings of the placename (e.g., Vacol, Bacor). Historians Ambeth Ocampo and Joseph Baumgartner
have also found that in all early documents, the place had always been written without
the final /d/, thereby making the may-nilad etymology spurious. The misidentification of nilad as the source
of the toponym appears to originate from an 1887 essay written by Trinidad Pardo de Tavera,
in which he wrote nila as both referring to Indigofera tinctoria (true indigo) and to
Ixora manila (actually, nilád in Tagalog). Early 20th century writings, such as those
of Julio Nakpil and of Blair and Robertson then repeated the claim. Today, this erroneous etymology continues
to be perpetuated through casual repetition in both literature and popular use, such as
in Maynilad Water Services and the name of the underpass close to Manila City Hall, Lagusnilad
(“Nilad Pass”).==History=====Precolonial history===The earliest evidence of human life around
present-day Manila is the nearby Angono Petroglyphs, dated to around 3000 BC. Negritos, the aboriginal inhabitants of the
Philippines, lived across the island of Luzon, where Manila is located, before the Malayo-Polynesians
migrated in and assimilated them.The polity of Tondo flourished during the latter half
of the Ming dynasty as a result of direct trade relations with China. The Tondo district was the traditional capital
of the empire, and its rulers were sovereign kings, not mere chieftains. They were addressed variously as panginuan
in Maranao or panginoón in Tagalog (“lords”); anák banwa (“son of heaven”); or lakandula
(“lord of the palace”). The Emperor of China considered the Lakans—the
rulers of ancient Manila—”王”, or kings.In the 13th century, Manila consisted of a fortified
settlement and trading quarter on the shore of the Pasig River. It was then settled by the Indianized empire
of Majapahit, as recorded in the epic eulogy poem “Nagarakretagama”, which described the
area’s conquest by Maharaja Hayam Wuruk. Selurong (षेलुरोङ्), a historical
name for Manila, is listed in Canto 14 alongside Sulot, which is now Sulu, and Kalka.During
the reign of Sultan Bolkiah from 1485 to 1521, the Sultanate of Brunei invaded, wanting to
take advantage of Tondo’s trade with China by attacking its environs and establishing
the Muslim Rajahnate of Maynilà (كوتا سلودوڠ; Kota Seludong). The rajahnate was ruled under and gave yearly
tribute to the Sultanate of Brunei as a satellite state. It established a new dynasty under the local
leader, who accepted Islam and became Rajah Salalila or Sulaiman I. He established a trading challenge to the
already rich House of Lakan Dula in Tondo. Islam was further strengthened by the arrival
of Muslim traders from the Middle East and Southeast Asia.===Spanish period===On June 24, 1571, the conquistador Miguel
López de Legazpi arrived in Manila and declared it a territory of New Spain (Mexico), establishing
a city council in what is now the district of Intramuros. López de Legazpi had the local royalty executed
or exiled after the failure of the Tondo Conspiracy, a plot wherein an alliance between datus,
rajahs, Japanese merchants and the Sultanate of Brunei would band together to execute the
Spaniards, along with their Latin American recruits and Visayan allies. The victorious Spaniards made Manila, the
capital of the Spanish East Indies and of the Philippines, which their empire would
control for the next three centuries. In 1574, Manila was temporarily besieged by
the Chinese pirate Lim Hong, who was ultimately thwarted by the local inhabitants. Manila became famous during the Manila–Acapulco
galleon trade, which lasted for three centuries and brought goods from Europe, Africa and
Hispanic America across the Pacific Islands to Southeast Asia (which was already an entrepôt
for goods coming from India, Indonesia and China), and vice versa. Silver that was mined in Mexico and Peru was
exchanged for Chinese silk, Indian gems and the spices of Southeast Asia. Likewise, wines and olives grown in Europe
and North Africa were shipped via Mexico to Manila.The city was captured by Great Britain
in 1762 as part of the Seven Years’ War in Europe. The city was then occupied by the British
for twenty months from 1762 to 1764 in their attempt to rule the Spanish East Indies, but
the city was cut off from the rest of the country by Spanish-Filipino forces who refused
to accept British rule. Eventually, the British withdrew in accordance
with the 1763 Treaty of Paris. An unknown number of Indian soldiers known
as sepoys, who came with the British, deserted and settled in nearby Cainta, Rizal, which
explains the uniquely Indian features of generations of Cainta residents. The Chinese were then punished for supporting
the British invasion, and the fortress city of Intramuros, initially populated by 1200
Spanish families and garrisoned by 400 Spanish troops, kept its cannons pointed at Binondo,
the world’s oldest Chinatown. The Mexican population was concentrated at
the south part of Manila, and also at Cavite, where ships from Spain’s American colonies
docked, and at Ermita, an area so named because of a Mexican hermit that lived there.After
Mexico gained independence in 1821, Spain began to govern Manila directly. Under direct Spanish rule, banking, industry
and education flourished more than they had in the previous two centuries. The opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 facilitated
direct trade and communications with Spain. The city’s growing wealth and education attracted
indigenous people, Chinese, Indians, Latinos, and Europeans from the surrounding provinces
and facilitated the rise of an ilustrado class that espoused liberal ideas: the ideological
foundations of the Philippine Revolution, which sought independence from Spain.===American period===
After the 1898 Battle of Manila, Spain ceded Manila to the United States. The First Philippine Republic, based in nearby
Bulacan, fought against the Americans for control of the city. The Americans defeated the First Philippine
Republic and captured President Emilio Aguinaldo, who declared allegiance to the United States
on April 1, 1901. Upon drafting a new charter for Manila in
June 1901, the Americans made official what had long been tacit: that the city of Manila
consisted not of Intramuros alone but also of the surrounding areas. The new charter proclaimed that Manila was
composed of eleven municipal districts: presumably Binondo, Ermita, Intramuros, Malate, Paco,
Pandacan, Sampaloc, San Miguel, Santa Ana, Santa Cruz and Tondo. In addition, the Catholic Church recognized
five parishes—Gagalangin, Trozo, Balic-Balic, Santa Mesa and Singalong—as part of Manila. Later, two more would be added: Balut and
San Andres. Under American control, a new, civilian-oriented
Insular Government headed by Governor-General William Howard Taft invited city planner Daniel
Burnham to adapt Manila to modern needs. The Burnham Plan included the development
of a road system, the use of waterways for transportation, and the beautification of
Manila with waterfront improvements and construction of parks, parkways and buildings.The planned
buildings included a government center occupying all of Wallace Field, which extends from Rizal
Park to the present Taft Avenue. The Philippine Capitol was to rise at the
Taft Avenue end of the field, facing toward the sea. Along with buildings for various government
bureaus and departments, it would form a quadrangle with a lagoon in the center and a monument
to José Rizal at the other end of the field. Of Burnham’s proposed government center, only
three units—the Legislative Building and the buildings of the Finance and Agricultural
Departments—were completed when World War II erupted.===Japanese occupation and World War II===During the Japanese occupation of the Philippines,
American soldiers were ordered to withdraw from Manila, and all military installations
were removed on December 24, 1941. General Douglas MacArthur declared Manila
an open city to prevent further death and destruction, but Japanese warplanes continued
to bomb it. Manila was occupied by Japanese forces on
January 2, 1942. From February 3 to March 3, 1945, Manila was
the site of the bloodiest battle in the Pacific theater of World War II. Some 100,000 civilians were killed in February. At the end of the battle, Manila was recaptured
by joint American and Philippine troops. It was the second most devastated city in
the world, after Warsaw, during the Second World War. Almost all of the structures in the city,
particularly in Intramuros, were destroyed.===Contemporary period===In 1948, President Elpidio Quirino moved the
seat of government of the Philippines to Quezon City, a new capital in the suburbs and fields
northeast of Manila, created in 1939 during the administration of President Manuel L.
Quezon. The move ended any implementation of the Burnham
Plan’s intent for the government centre to be at Luneta. With the Visayan-born Arsenio Lacson as its
first elected mayor in 1952 (all mayors were appointed before this), Manila underwent The
Golden Age, once again earning its status as the “Pearl of the Orient”, a moniker it
earned before the Second World War. After Lacson’s term in the 1950s, Manila was
led by Antonio Villegas for most of the 1960s. Ramon Bagatsing (an Indian-Filipino) was mayor
for nearly the entire 1970s until the 1986 People Power Revolution. Mayors Lacson, Villegas, and Bagatsing are
collectively known as the “Big Three of Manila” for their contribution to the development
of the city and their lasting legacy in improving the quality of life and welfare of the people
of Manila. During the administration of Ferdinand Marcos,
the region of Metro Manila was created as an integrated unit with the enactment of Presidential
Decree No. 824 on November 7, 1975. The area encompassed four cities and thirteen
adjoining towns, as a separate regional unit of government. On the 405th anniversary of the city’s foundation
on June 24, 1976, Manila was reinstated by Marcos as the capital of the Philippines for
its historical significance as the seat of government since the Spanish Period. Presidential Decree No. 940 states that Manila
has always been to the Filipino people and in the eyes of the world, the premier city
of the Philippines being the center of trade, commerce, education and culture. Concurrent with the reinstatement of Manila
as the capital, Ferdinand Marcos designated his wife, Imelda Marcos, as the first governor
of Metro Manila. She started the rejuvenation of the city as
she re-branded Manila as the “City of Man”.During the martial law era, Manila became a hot-bed
of resistance activity as youth and student demonstrators repeatedly clashed with the
police and military which were subservient to the Marcos regime. After decades of resistance, the non-violent
People Power Revolution (predecessor to the peaceful-revolutions that toppled the iron-curtain
in Europe), ousted the authoritarian Marcos from power.From 1986–1992, Mel Lopez was
mayor of Manila. During his early years, his administration
was faced with 700 million pesos worth of debt and inherited an empty treasury. In the first eleven months, however, the debt
was reduced to 365 million pesos and the city’s income rose by around 70% eventually leaving
the city with positive income until the end of his term. Lopez closed down numerous illegal gambling
joints and jueteng. In January 1990, Lopez padlocked two Manila
casinos operated by the Philippine Amusement and Gaming Corporation (PAGCOR), saying the
billions it gained cannot make up for the negative effects gambling inflicts upon the
people, particularly the youth. He also revived the Boys’ Town Haven (now
referred to as “Boys Town”), rehabilitating its facilities to accommodate underprivileged
children and provide them with livelihood and education. In 1992, Alfredo Lim was elected mayor, the
first Chinese-Filipino to hold the office. He was known for his anti-crime crusades. Lim was succeeded by Lito Atienza, who served
as his vice mayor. Atienza was known for his campaign (and city
slogan) “Buhayin ang Maynila” (Revive Manila), which saw the establishment of several parks
and the repair and rehabilitation of the city’s deteriorating facilities. He was the city’s mayor for 3 terms (9 years)
before being termed out of office. Lim once again ran for mayor and defeated
Atienza’s son Ali in the 2007 city election and immediately reversed all of Atienza’s
projects claiming Atienza’s projects made little contribution to the improvements of
the city. The relationship of both parties turned bitter,
with the two pitting again during the 2010 city elections in which Lim won against Atienza. Lim was sued by councilor Dennis Alcoreza
on 2008 over human rights, charged with graft over the rehabilitation of public schools,
and was heavily criticized for his haphazard resolution of the Rizal Park hostage taking
incident, one of the deadliest hostage crisis in the Philippines. Later on, Vice Mayor Isko Moreno and 28 city
councilors filed another case against Lim in 2012, stating that Lim’s statement in a
meeting were “life-threatening” to them. In 2012, DMCI Homes began constructing Torre
de Manila, which became controversial for ruining the sight line of Rizal Park. The tower is infamously known as “Terror de
Manila” or the “national photobomber.” The Torre de Manila controversy is regarded
as one of the most sensationalized heritage issues of the country. In 2017, the National Historical Commission
of the Philippines erected a ‘comfort woman’ statue along Roxas Boulevard, which made Japan
expressed regret that such statue was erected in the city despite the healthy relationship
between Japan and the Philippines. In the 2013 elections, former President Joseph
Estrada defeated Lim in the mayoral race. During his term, Estrada has paid more than
₱5 billion in city debts and increased the city’s revenues from ₱6.2 billion in 2012
to ₱14.6 billion by 2016, resulting in increased infrastructure spending and the betterment
of the welfare of the people of Manila. In 2015, the city became the most competitive
city in the Philippines, making the city the best place for doing business and for living
in. However, despite these achievements, Estrada
only narrowly won over Lim in their electoral rematch in 2016.The city has an ordinance
penalizing cat-calling since 2018, and is the second city in the Philippines to do so
after Quezon City passed a similar ordinance in 2016. Recently, the City Government is planning
to revise existing curfew ordinance since the Supreme Court declared it unconstitutional
on August 2017. Out of the three cities reviewed by the Supreme
Court, namely: the City of Manila, Navotas and Quezon City; only the curfew ordinance
of Quezon City was approved.Under the proposed form of federalism in the Philippines, Manila
may no longer be the capital or Metro Manila may no longer be the seat of government. The committee has not yet decided on the federal
capital and states that they are open to other proposals.==Geography==The City of Manila is situated on the eastern
shore of Manila Bay, on the western edge of Luzon, 1300 km from mainland Asia. One of Manila’s greatest natural resources
is the protected harbor upon which it sits, regarded as the finest in all of Asia. The Pasig River flows through the middle of
city, dividing it into the north and south. The overall grade of the city’s central, built-up
areas, is relatively consistent with the natural flatness of its overall natural geography,
generally exhibiting only slight differentiation otherwise. Almost all of Manila sits on top of centuries
of prehistoric alluvial deposits built by the waters of the Pasig River and on some
land reclaimed from Manila Bay. Manila’s land has been altered substantially
by human intervention, with considerable land reclamation along the waterfronts since the
American colonial times. Some of the city’s natural variations in topography
have been evened out. As of 2013, Manila had a total area of 42.88
square kilometers.In 2017, the City Government approved five reclamation projects: the New
Manila Bay–City of Pearl (New Manila Bay International Community) (407.43 hectares),
Solar City (148 hectares), the Manila Harbour Center expansion (50 hectares), Manila Waterfront
City (318 hectares) and Horizon Manila (419 hectares). Once completed, it will increase the city’s
total area from 42.88 km2 (4,288 ha) to 58.3 km2 (5,830 ha). Another reclamation project is possible and
when built, it will contain the in-city housing relocation projects. Reclamation projects have been criticized
by environmental activists and the Philippine Catholic Church, claiming that these are not
sustainable and would put communities at risk of flooding. In line of the upcoming reclamation projects,
the Philippines and the Netherlands forged a cooperation to craft the ₱250 million
Manila Bay Sustainable Development Master Plan to guide future decisions on programs
and projects on Manila Bay.===Climate===
Under the Köppen climate classification system, Manila has a tropical savanna climate (Köppen
Aw). Together with the rest of the Philippines,
Manila lies entirely within the tropics. Its proximity to the equator means that temperatures
are hot year-round, rarely going below 21 °C (69.8 °F) or above 39 °C (102.2 °F). Temperature extremes have ranged from 14.5
°C (58.1 °F) on January 11, 1914, to 38.6 °C (101.5 °F) on May 7, 1915.Humidity levels
are usually very high all year round, making the temperature feel hotter than it is. Manila has a distinct dry season from December
through May, and a relatively lengthy wet season that covers the remaining period with
slightly cooler temperatures. In the wet season, it rarely rains all day,
but rainfall is very heavy during short periods. Typhoons usually occur from June to September.===Natural hazards===Swiss Re ranked Manila as the second riskiest
capital city to live in, citing its exposure to natural hazards such as earthquakes, tsunamis,
typhoons and floods. The seismically active Marikina Valley Fault
System poses a threat of a large-scale earthquake with an estimated magnitude between 6–7
and as high as 7.6 to Metro Manila and nearby provinces. Manila has endured several deadly earthquakes,
notably in 1645 and in 1677 which destroyed the stone and brick medieval city. The Earthquake Baroque style was used by architects
during the Spanish colonial period in order to adapt to the frequent earthquakes.Manila
is hit with five to seven typhoons yearly. In 2009, Typhoon Ketsana (Ondoy) struck the
Philippines. It led to one of the worst floodings in Metro
Manila and several provinces in Luzon with an estimated damages worth ₱11 billion ($237
million). The floodings caused 448 deaths in Metro Manila
alone. Following the aftermath of Typhoon Ketsana,
the city began to dredge its rivers and improve its drainage network.===Pollution===Due to industrial waste and automobiles, Manila
suffers from air pollution, affecting 98% of the population. Air pollution alone causes more than 4,000
deaths yearly. On a 1995 report, Ermita is regarded as Manila’s
most air polluted district due to open dump sites and industrial waste. According to a report in 2003, the Pasig River
is one of the most polluted rivers in the world with 150 tons of domestic waste and
75 tons of industrial waste dumped daily. The city is the second biggest waste producer
in the country with 1,151.79 tons (7,500.07 cubic meters) per day, after Quezon City which
yields 1,386.84 tons or 12,730.59 cubic meters per day. Both cities were cited as having poor management
in garbage collection and disposal.The Pasig River Rehabilitation Commission is in charge
of cleaning up the Pasig River and tributaries for transportation, recreation and tourism
purposes. Rehabilitation efforts have resulted in the
creation of parks along the riverside, along with stricter pollution controls.==Cityscape==Manila is a planned city. In 1905, American Architect and Urban Planner
Daniel Burnham was commissioned to design the new capital. His design for the city was based on the City
Beautiful movement, which features broad streets and avenues radiating out from rectangles. The city is made up of fourteen city districts,
according to Republic Act No. 409—the Revised Charter of the City of Manila—the basis
of which officially sets the present-day boundary of the city. Two districts were later created, which are
Santa Mesa (partitioned off from Sampaloc) and San Andres (partitioned off from Santa
Ana). Manila’s mix of architectural styles reflects
the turbulent history of the city and country. During the Second World War, Manila was razed
to the ground by the Japanese forces and the shelling of American forces. After the liberation, rebuilding began and
most of the historical buildings were thoroughly reconstructed. However, some of the historic buildings from
the 19th century that had been preserved in reasonably reconstructible form were nonetheless
eradicated or otherwise left to deteriorate. Manila’s current urban landscape is one of
modern and contemporary architecture.===Architecture===Manila is known for its eclectic mix of architecture
that shows a wide range of styles spanning different historical and cultural periods. Architectural styles reflect American, Spanish,
Chinese, and Malay influences. Prominent Filipino architects such as Antonio
Toledo, Felipe Roxas, Juan M. Arellano and Tomás Mapúa have designed significant buildings
in Manila such as churches, government offices, theaters, mansions, schools and universities. Manila is also famed for its Art Deco theaters. Some of these were designed by National Artists
for Architecture such as Juan Nakpil and Pablo Antonio. Unfortunately most of these theaters were
neglected, and some of it have been demolished. The historic Escolta Street in Binondo features
many buildings of Neoclassical and Beaux-Arts architectural style, many of which were designed
by prominent Filipino architects during the American Rule in the 1920s to the late 1930s. Many architects, artists, historians and heritage
advocacy groups are pushing for the rehabilitation of Escolta Street, which was once the premier
street of the Philippines.Almost all of Manila’s prewar and Spanish colonial architecture were
destroyed during its battle for liberation by the intensive bombardment of the United
States Air Force during World War II. Reconstruction took place afterwards, replacing
the destroyed historic Spanish-era buildings with modern ones, erasing much of the city’s
character. Some buildings destroyed by the war have been
reconstructed, such as the Old Legislative Building (now the National Museum of Fine
Arts), Ayuntamiento de Manila (now the Bureau of the Treasury) and the currently under construction
San Ignacio Church and Convent (as the Museo de Intramuros). There are plans to rehabilitate and/or restore
several neglected historic buildings and places such as Plaza Del Carmen, San Sebastian Church
and the Manila Metropolitan Theater. Spanish-era shops and houses in the districts
of Binondo, Quiapo, and San Nicolas are also planned to be restored, as a part of a movement
to restore the city to its former glory and its beautiful prewar state.Since Manila is
prone to earthquakes, the Spanish colonial architects invented the style called Earthquake
Baroque which the churches and government buildings during the Spanish colonial period
adopted. As a result, succeeding earthquakes of the
18th and 19th centuries barely affected Manila, although it did periodically level the surrounding
area. Modern buildings in and around Manila are
designed or have been retrofitted to withstand an 8.2 magnitude quake in accordance to the
country’s building code.==Demographics==According to the 2015 census, the population
of the city was 1,780,148, making it the second most populous city in the Philippines. Manila is the most densely populated city
in the world, with 41,515 inhabitants per km2 in 2015. District 6 is listed as being the most dense
with 68,266 inhabitants per km2, followed by District 1 with 64,936 and District 2 with
64,710. District 5 is the least densely populated
area with 19,235.Manila’s population density dwarfs that of Kolkata (24,252 inhabitants
per km2), Mumbai (20,482 inhabitants per km2), Paris (20,164 inhabitants per km2), Dhaka
(29,069 inhabitants per km2), Shanghai (16,364 inhabitants per km2, with its most dense district,
Nanshi, having a density of 56,785 inhabitants per km2), and Tokyo (10,087 inhabitants per
km2).Manila has been presumed to be the Philippines’ largest city since the establishment of a
permanent Spanish settlement with the city eventually becoming the political, commercial
and ecclesiastical capital of the country. Its population increased dramatically since
the 1903 census as the population tended to move from rural areas to towns and cities. In the 1960 census, Manila became the first
Philippine city to breach the one million mark (more than 5 times of its 1903 population). The city continued to grow until the population
somehow “stabilized” at 1.6 million and experienced alternating increase and decrease starting
the 1990 census year. This phenomenon may be attributed to the higher
growth experience by suburbs and the already very high population density of city. As such, Manila exhibited a decreasing percentage
share to the metropolitan population from as high as 63% in the 1950s to 27.5% in 1980
and then to 13.8% in 2015. The much larger Quezon City marginally surpassed
the population of Manila in 1990 and by the 2015 census already has 1.1 million people
more. Nationally, the population of Manila is expected
to be overtaken by cities with larger territories such as Caloocan and Davao City by 2020.The
vernacular language is Filipino, based mostly on the Tagalog language of surrounding areas,
and this Manila form of spoken Tagalog has essentially become the lingua franca of the
Philippines, having spread throughout the archipelago through mass media and entertainment. English is the language most widely used in
education, business, and heavily in everyday usage throughout Metro Manila and the Philippines
itself. A number of older residents can still speak
basic Spanish, which used to be a mandatory subject in the curriculum of Philippine universities
and colleges, and many children of Japanese Filipino, Korean Filipino, Indian Filipino,
and other migrants or expatriates also speak their parents’ languages at home, aside from
English and/or Filipino for everyday use. A variant of Southern Min, Hokkien (locally
known as Lan’nang-oe) is mainly spoken by the city’s Chinese-Filipino community. According to data provided by the Bureau of
Immigration, a total of 3.12 million Chinese citizens arrived in the Philippines from January
2016 to May 2018.===Crime===Crime in Manila is concentrated in areas associated
with poverty, drug abuse, and gangs. Crime in the city is also directly related
to its changing demographics and unique criminal justice system. Illegal drug trade is a major problem of the
city. In Metro Manila alone, 92% of the barangays
are affected by illegal drugs.From 2010 to 2015, the city had the second highest index
crime rates in the Philippines, with 54,689 cases or an average of about 9,100 cases per
year. By October 2017, the Manila Police District
(MPD) reported a 38.7% decrease in index crimes, from 5,474 cases in 2016 to only 3,393 in
2017. MPD’s crime solution efficiency also improved,
wherein six to seven out of 10 crimes have been solved by the city police force. MPD was cited was the Best Police District
in Metro Manila in 2017 for registering the highest crime solution efficiency.===Religion=======Christianity====As a result of Spanish cultural influence,
Manila is a predominantly Christian city. As of 2010, Roman Catholics were 93.5% of
the population, followed by adherents of the Philippine Independent Church (2.4%); Iglesia
ni Cristo (1.9%); various Protestant churches (1.8%); and Buddhists (1.1%). Members of Islam and other religions make
up the remaining 1.4% of its population.Manila is the seat of prominent Catholic churches
and institutions. There are 113 Catholic churches within the
city limits; 63 are considered as major shrines, basilicas, or a cathedral. The Manila Cathedral is the seat of the Roman
Catholic Archdiocese of Manila and the oldest established church in the country. Aside from the Manila Cathedral, there are
also three other basilicas in the city: Quiapo Church, Binondo Church, and the Minor Basilica
of San Sebastián. The San Agustín Church in Intramuros is a
UNESCO World Heritage Site and is one of the two fully air-conditioned Catholic churches
in the city. Manila also has other parishes located throughout
the city, with some of them dating back to the Spanish Colonial Period when the city
serves as the base for numerous Catholic missions both within the Philippines and to Asia beyond. Several Mainline Protestant denominations
are headquartered in the city. St. Stephen’s Parish pro-cathedral in the
Sta. Cruz district is the see of the Episcopal
Church in the Philippines’ Diocese of Central Philippines, while align Taft Avenue are the
main cathedral and central offices of the Iglesia Filipina Independiente (also called
the Aglipayan Church, a national church that was a product of the Philippine Revolution). Other faiths like The Church of Jesus Christ
of Latter-day Saints (Mormons) has several churches in the city. The indigenous Iglesia ni Cristo has several
locales (akin to parishes) in the city, including its very first chapel (now a museum) in Punta,
Sta. Ana. Evangelical, Pentecostal and Seventh-day Adventist
denominations also thrive within the city. The headquarters of the Philippine Bible Society
is in Manila. Also, the main campus of the Cathedral of
Praise is located along Taft Avenue. Jesus Is Lord Church Worldwide also has several
branches and campuses in Manila, and celebrates its anniversary yearly at the Burnham Green
and Quirino Grandstand in Rizal Park.====Other faiths====
There are many Buddhist and Taoist temples in the city serving the Chinese Filipino community. Quiapo is home to a sizable Muslim population
which worships at Masjid Al-Dahab. Members of the Indian expatriate population
have the option of worshiping at the large Hindu temple in the city, or at the Sikh gurdwara
along United Nations Avenue. The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís
of the Philippines, the governing body of the Filipino Bahá’í community, is headquartered
near Manila’s eastern border with Makati.==Economy==Manila is a major center for commerce, banking
and finance, retailing, transportation, tourism, real estate, new media as well as traditional
media, advertising, legal services, accounting, insurance, theater, fashion, and the arts
in the Philippines. Around 60,000 establishments operate in the
city.The National Competitiveness Council of the Philippines which annually publishes
the Cities and Municipalities Competitiveness Index (CMCI), ranks the cities, municipalities
and provinces of the country according to their economic dynamism, government efficiency
and infrastructure. According to the 2016 CMCI, Manila was the
second most competitive city in the Philippines. Manila placed third in the Highly Urbanized
City (HUC) category. Manila held the title country’s most competitive
city in 2015, and since then has been making it to the top 3, assuring that the city is
consistently one of the best place to live in and do business. Lars Wittig, the country manager of Regus
Philippines, hailed Manila as the third best city in the country to launch a start-up business.The
Port of Manila is the largest seaport in the Philippines, making it the premier international
shipping gateway to the country. The Philippine Ports Authority is the government
agency responsible to oversee the operation and management of the ports. The International Container Terminal Services
Inc. cited by the Asian Development Bank as one of the top five major maritime terminal
operators in the world has its headquarters and main operations on the ports of Manila. Another port operator, the Asian Terminal
Incorporated, has its corporate office and main operations in the Manila South Harbor
and its container depository located in Santa Mesa. Binondo, the oldest and one of the largest
Chinatowns in the world, was the center of commerce and business activities in the city. Numerous residential and office skyscrapers
are found within its medieval streets. Plans to make the Chinatown area into a business
process outsourcing (BPO) hub progresses and is aggressively pursued by the city government
of Manila. 30 buildings are already identified to be
converted into BPO offices. These buildings are mostly located along the
Escolta Street of Binondo, which are all unoccupied and can be converted into offices.Divisoria
in Tondo is known as the “shopping mecca of the Philippines.” Numerous shopping malls are located in this
place, which sells products and goods at bargain price. Small vendors occupy several roads that causes
pedestrian and vehicular traffic. A famous landmark in Divisoria is the Tutuban
Center, a large shopping mall that is a part of the Philippine National Railways’ Main
Station. It attracts 1 million people every month,
but is expected to add another 400,000 people when the LRT Line 2 West Extension is constructed,
which is set to make it as Manila’s busiest transfer station. Diverse manufacturers within the city produce
industrial-related products such as chemicals, textiles, clothing, and electronic goods. Food and beverages and tobacco products also
produced. Local entrepreneurs continue to process primary
commodities for export, including rope, plywood, refined sugar, copra, and coconut oil. The food-processing industry is one of the
most stable major manufacturing sector in the city. The Pandacan Oil Depot houses the storage
facilities and distribution terminals of the three major players in the country’s petroleum
industry, namely Caltex Philippines, Pilipinas Shell and Petron Corporation. The oil depot has been a subject of various
concerns, including its environmental and health impact to the residents of Manila. The Supreme Court has ordered that the oil
depot to be relocated outside the city by July 2015, but it failed to meet this deadline. Most of the oil depot facility inside the
33 hectare compound have been demolished, and plans are put into place to transform
it into a transport hub or even a food park. Manila is a major publishing center in the
Philippines. Manila Bulletin, the Philippines’ largest
broadsheet newspaper by circulation, is headquartered in Intramuros. Other major publishing companies in the country
like The Manila Times, The Philippine Star and Manila Standard Today are headquartered
in the Port Area. The Chinese Commercial News, the Philippines’
oldest existing Chinese-language newspaper, and the country’s third-oldest existing newspaper
is headquartered in Binondo. Manila serves as the headquarters of the Central
Bank of the Philippines which is located along Roxas Boulevard. Some universal banks in the Philippines that
has its headquarters in the city are the Landbank of the Philippines and Philippine Trust Company. Unilever Philippines used to have its corporate
office along United Nations Avenue in Paco before transferring to Bonifacio Global City
in 2016. Toyota, a company listed in the Forbes Global
2000, also has its regional office along UN Avenue.===Tourism===Manila welcomes over 1 million tourists each
year. Major tourist destinations include the historic
Walled City of Intramuros, the Cultural Center of the Philippines Complex, Manila Ocean Park,
Binondo (Chinatown), Ermita, Malate, Manila Zoo, the National Museum Complex and Rizal
Park. Both the historic Walled City of Intramuros
and Rizal Park were designated as flagship destinations and as a tourism enterprise zones
in the Tourism Act of 2009.Rizal Park, also known as Luneta Park, is the national park
and the largest urban park in Asia with an area of 58 hectares (140 acres), The park
was constructed as an honor and dedication to the country’s national hero José Rizal,
who was executed by the Spaniards on charges of subversion. The flagpole west of the Rizal Monument is
the Kilometer Zero marker for distances to the rest of the country. The park was managed by the National Parks
and Development Committee. The 0.67 square kilometers (0.26 sq mi) Walled
City of Intramuros is the historic center of Manila. It is administered by the Intramuros Administration,
an attached agency of the Department of Tourism. It contains the famed Manila Cathedral and
the 18th Century San Agustin Church, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Kalesa is a popular mode of transportation
for tourists in Intramuros and nearby places including Binondo, Ermita and Rizal Park. Known as the oldest chinatown in the world,
Binondo was established on 1521 and it was already a hub of Chinese commerce even before
the Spaniards colonized the Philippines. Its main attractions are Binondo Church, Filipino-Chinese
Friendship Arch, Seng Guan Buddhist temple and authentic Chinese restaurants. Manila is designated as the country’s pioneer
of medical tourism, expecting it to generate $1 billion in revenue annually. However, lack of progressive health system,
inadequate infrastructure and the unstable political environment are seen as hindrances
for its growth.===Shopping===Manila is regarded as one of the best shopping
destinations in Asia. Major shopping malls, department stores, markets,
supermarkets and bazaars thrive within the city. One of the city’s famous shopping destinations
is Divisoria, home to numerous shopping malls in the city, including the famed Tutuban Center
and the Lucky Chinatown Mall. It is also dubbed as the shopping mecca of
the Philippines where everything is sold at bargain price. There are almost 1 million shoppers in Divisoria
according to the Manila Police District. Binondo, the oldest Chinatown in the world,
is the city’s center of commerce and trade for all types of businesses run by Filipino-Chinese
merchants with a wide variety of Chinese and Filipino shops and restaurants. Quiapo is referred to as the “Old Downtown”,
where tiangges, markets, boutique shops, music and electronics stores are common. C.M. Recto Avenue is where lots of department stores
are located. Robinsons Place Manila is the largest shopping
mall in the city. The mall was the second and the largest Robinsons
Malls built. SM Supermall operates two shopping malls in
the city which are the SM City Manila and SM City San Lazaro. SM City Manila is located on the former grounds
of YMCA Manila beside the Manila City Hall in Ermita, while SM City San Lazaro is built
on the site of the former San Lazaro Hippodrome in Sta. Cruz. The building of the former Manila Royal Hotel
in Quiapo, which is famed for its revolving restaurant atop, is now the SM Clearance Center
that was established in 1972. The site of the first SM Store is located
at Carlos Palanca Sr. (formerly Echague) Street in San Miguel.==Culture=====Museums===As the cultural center of the Philippines,
Manila is the home to a number of museums. The National Museum Complex of the National
Museum of the Philippines, located in Rizal Park, is composed of the National Museum of
Fine Arts, the National Museum of Anthropology, the National Museum of Natural History, and
the National Planetarium. The famous painting of Juan Luna, the Spoliarium,
can be found in the complex. The city also hosts the repository of the
country’s printed and recorded cultural heritage and other literary and information resources,
the National Library. Museums established or run by educational
institutions are the Mabini Shrine, the DLS-CSB Museum of Contemporary Art and Design, UST
Museum of Arts and Sciences, and the UP Museum of a History of Ideas. Bahay Tsinoy, one of Manila’s most prominent
museums, documents the Chinese lives and contributions in the history of the Philippines. The Intramuros Light and Sound Museum chronicles
the Filipinos desire for freedom during the revolution under Rizal’s leadership and other
revolutionary leaders. The Metropolitan Museum of Manila is a museum
of modern and contemporary visual arts exhibits the Filipino arts and culture. Other museums in the city are the Museum of
Manila, the city-owned museum that exhibits the city’s culture and history, Museo Pambata,
a children’s museum and a place of hands-on discovery and fun learning, the Museum of
Philippine Political History, which exhibits notable political events in the country, and
Plaza San Luis, an outdoor heritage public museum that contains a collection of nine
Spanish Bahay na Bató houses. Ecclesiastical museums in the located in the
city are the Parish of the Our Lady of the Abandoned in Santa Ana, the San Agustin Church
Museum and the upcoming Museo de Intramuros which was housed in the reconstructed San
Ignacio Church and Convent.===Sports===Sports in Manila have a long and distinguished
history. The city’s, and in general the country’s main
sport is basketball, and most barangays have a basketball court or at least a makeshift
basketball court, with court markings drawn on the streets. Larger barangays have covered courts where
inter-barangay leagues are held every summer (April to May). Manila has many sports venues, such as the
Rizal Memorial Sports Complex and San Andres Gym, the home of the now defunct Manila Metrostars. The Rizal Memorial Sports Complex houses the
Rizal Memorial Track and Football Stadium, the Baseball Stadium, Tennis Courts, Memorial
Coliseum and the Ninoy Aquino Stadium (the latter two are indoor arenas). The Rizal complex had hosted several multi-sport
events, such as the 1954 Asian Games and the 1934 Far Eastern Games. Whenever the country hosts the Southeast Asian
Games, most of the events are held at the complex, but in the 2005 Games, most events
were held elsewhere. The 1960 ABC Championship and the 1973 ABC
Championship, forerunners of the FIBA Asia Championship, was hosted by the complex, with
the national basketball team winning on both tournaments. The 1978 FIBA World Championship was held
at the complex although the latter stages were held in the Araneta Coliseum in Quezon
City, Southeast Asia’s largest indoor arena at that time. Manila also hosts several well-known sports
facilities such as the Enrique M. Razon Sports Center and the University of Santo Tomas Sports
Complex, both of which are private venues owned by a university; collegiate sports are
also held, with the University Athletic Association of the Philippines and the National Collegiate
Athletic Association basketball games held at Rizal Memorial Coliseum and Ninoy Aquino
Stadium, although basketball events had transferred to San Juan’s Filoil Flying V Arena and the
Araneta Coliseum in Quezon City. Other collegiate sports are still held at
the Rizal Memorial Sports Complex. Professional basketball also used to play
at the city, but the Philippine Basketball Association now holds their games at Araneta
Coliseum and Cuneta Astrodome at Pasay; the now defunct Philippine Basketball League played
some of their games at the Rizal Memorial Sports Complex. The Manila Storm are the city’s rugby league
team training at Rizal Park (Luneta Park) and playing their matches at Southern Plains
Field, Calamba, Laguna. Previously a widely played sport in the city,
Manila is now the home of the only sizable baseball stadium in the country, at the Rizal
Memorial Baseball Stadium. The stadium hosts games of Baseball Philippines;
Lou Gehrig and Babe Ruth were the first players to score a home run at the stadium at their
tour of the country on December 2, 1934. Another popular sport in the city are cue
sports, and billiard halls are a feature in most barangays. The 2010 World Cup of Pool was held at Robinsons
Place Manila.The Rizal Memorial Track and Football Stadium hosted the first FIFA World
Cup qualifier in decades when the Philippines hosted Sri Lanka in July 2011. The stadium, which was previously unfit for
international matches, had undergone a major renovation program before the match. The Football Stadium now regularly hosts matches
of the United Football League. The stadium also hosted its first rugby test
when it hosted the 2012 Asian Five Nations Division I tournaments.===Festivities and holidays===Manila celebrates civic and national holidays. Since most of the city’s citizens are Roman
Catholics as a result of the Spanish colonization, most of the festivities are religious in nature. Manila Day, which celebrates the city’s founding
on June 24, 1571 by Spanish conquistador Miguel López de Legazpi, was first proclaimed by
Herminio A. Astorga (then Vice Mayor of Manila) on June 24, 1962. It has been annually commemorated under the
patronage of John the Baptist, and has always been declared by the national government as
a special non-working holiday through Presidential Proclamations. Each of the city’s 896 barangays also have
their own festivities guided by their own patron saint. The city is also the host to the Procession
of the Feast of the Black Nazarene (Traslacíon), held every January 9, which draws millions
of Catholic devotees. Other religious festivities held in Manila
are the Feast of Santo Niño in Tondo and Pandacan held on the third Sunday of January,
the Feast of the Nuestra Señora de los Desamparados de Manila (Our Lady of the Abandoned), the
patron saint of Santa Ana which was held every May 12, and the Flores de Mayo. Non-religious holidays include the New Year’s
Day, National Heroes’ Day, Bonifacio Day and Rizal Day.==Law and government==Manila—officially known as the City of Manila—is
the national capital of the Philippines and is classified as a Special City (according
to its income) and a Highly Urbanized City (HUC). The mayor is the chief executive, and is assisted
by the vice mayor, the 36-member City Council, six Congressmen, the President of the Association
of Barangay Captains, and the President of the Sangguniang Kabataan. The members of the City Council are elected
as representatives of specific congressional districts within the city. The city, however, have no control over Intramuros
and the Manila North Harbor. The historic Walled City is administered by
the Intramuros Administration, while the Manila North Harbor is managed by the Philippine
Ports Authority. Both are national government agencies. The barangays that have jurisdictions over
these places only oversee the welfare of the city’s constituents and cannot exercise their
executive powers. The current mayor is Joseph Estrada, who served
as the President of the Philippines from 1998 to 2001. He is currently on his second term in serving
as the city mayor. The current vice mayor is Dr. Maria Shielah
“Honey” Lacuna-Pangan, daughter of former Manila Vice Mayor Danny Lacuna. The mayor and the vice mayor are term-limited
by up to 3 terms, with each term lasting for 3 years. Manila, being the seat of political power
of the Philippines, has several national government offices headquartered at the city. Planning for the development for being the
center of government started during the early years of American colonization when they envisioned
a well-designed city outside the walls of Intramuros. The strategic location chosen was Bagumbayan,
a former town which is now the Rizal Park to become the center of government and a design
commission was given to Daniel Burnham to create a master plan for the city patterned
after Washington, D.C. These improvements were eventually abandoned
under the Commonwealth Government of Manuel L. Quezon. A new government center was to be built on
the hills northeast of Manila, or what is now Quezon City. Several government agencies have set up their
headquarters in Quezon City but several key government offices still reside in Manila. However, many of the plans were substantially
altered after the devastation of Manila during World War II and by subsequent administrations. The city, as the capital, still hosts the
Office of the President, as well as the president’s official residence. Aside from these, important government agencies
and institutions such as the Supreme Court, the Court of Appeals, the Bangko Sentral ng
Pilipinas, the Departments of Budget and Management, Finance, Health, Justice, Labor and Employment
and Public Works and Highways still call the city home. Manila also hosts important national institutions
such as the National Library, National Archives, National Museum and the Philippine General
Hospital. Congress previously held office at the Old
Congress Building. In 1972, due to declaration of martial law,
Congress was dissolved; its successor, the unicameral Batasang Pambansa, held office
at the new Batasang Pambansa Complex. When a new constitution restored the bicameral
Congress, the House of Representatives stayed at the Batasang Pambansa Complex, while the
Senate remained at the Old Congress Building. In May 1997, the Senate transferred to a new
building it shares with the Government Service Insurance System at reclaimed land at Pasay. The Supreme Court will also transfer to its
new campus at Bonifacio Global City, Taguig in 2019.===Finance===
In the 2016 Annual Financial Report for Local Government published by the Commission on
Audit, it is stated that the City of Manila’s total income was ₱12.8 billion. It is one of the cities with the highest tax
collection and internal revenue allotment. Tax collection alone accounts for ₱8.5 billion
out of the total ₱12.6 billion city income in 2017, while the city’s total Internal Revenue
Allotment from the National Treasury amounts to ₱2.6 billion. Its total asset was worth ₱36.1 billion
in 2016. The City of Manila has the highest budget
allocation to healthcare among all the cities and municipalities in the Philippines. Manila has a total of 10,148 personnel complement
by the end of 2017.===Barangays and Districts===Manila is made up of 896 barangays, which
are grouped into 100 Zones for statistical convenience. Manila has the most number of barangays in
the Philippines. Attempts at reducing its number have not prospered
despite local legislation—Ordinance 7907, passed on April 23, 1996—reducing the number
from 896 to 150 by merging existing barangays, because of the failure to hold a plebiscite. District I (2015 population: 415,906) covers
the western part of Tondo and is the most densely populated Congressional District. It is the home to one of the biggest urban
poor communities. The Smokey Mountain in Balut Island is once
known as the largest landfill where thousands of impoverished people lives in the slums. After the closure of the landfill in 1995,
mid-rise housing buildings were built in place. This district also contains the Manila North
Harbour Centre, the Manila North Harbor, and the Manila International Container Terminal
of the Port of Manila. District II (2015 population: 215,457) covers
the eastern part of Tondo known as Gagalangin. It contains Divisoria, a popular shopping
place in the Philippines and the site of the Main Terminal Station of the Philippine National
Railways. District III (2015 population: 221,780) covers
Binondo, Quiapo, San Nicolas and Santa Cruz. It encompasses the so-called “Downtown Manila”
or traditional business district of the city and the oldest Chinatown in the world. District IV (2015 population: 265,046) covers
Sampaloc and some parts of Santa Mesa. It contains the University of Santo Tomas,
the oldest existing university in Asia. District V (2015 population: 366,714) covers
Ermita, Malate, Paco, Port Area, Intramuros, San Andres Bukid, and a portion of Santa Ana. The historic Walled City is located here,
along with Manila Cathedral and San Agustin Church, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. District VI (2007 population: 295,245) covers
Pandacan, San Miguel, Santa Ana, Santa Mesa and a portion of Paco. Santa Ana district is known for its 18th Century
Santa Ana Church and historic ancestral houses. Polytechnic University of the Philippines
is located here, the most populous university in the Philippines.==Infrastructure=====Transportation===One of the more famous modes of transportation
in Manila is the jeepney. Patterned after U.S. Army jeeps, these have
been in use since the years immediately following World War II. The Tamaraw FX, the third generation Toyota
Kijang, which competed directly with jeepneys and followed fixed routes for a set price,
once plied the streets of Manila. All types of public road transport plying
Manila are privately owned and operated under government franchise. On a for-hire basis, the city is served by
numerous taxicabs, “tricycles” (motorcycles with sidecars, the Philippine version of the
auto rickshaw), and “trisikads” or “sikads”, which are also known as “kuligligs” (bicycles
with a sidecars, the Philippine version of pedicabs). In some areas, especially in Divisoria, motorized
pedicabs are popular. Spanish-era horse-drawn calesas are still
a popular tourist attraction and mode of transportation in the streets of Binondo and Intramuros. Manila will phase out all gasoline-run tricycles
and pedicabs and replace them with electric tricycles (e-trikes), and plans to distribute
10,000 e-trikes to qualified tricycle drivers from the city. As of January 2018, the city has already distributed
e-trikes to a number of drivers and operators in Binondo, Ermita, Malate and Santa Cruz.The
city is serviced by the LRT Line 1 and Line 2, which form the Manila Light Rail Transit
System. Development of the railway system began in
the 1970s under the presidency of Ferdinand Marcos, when Line 1 was built, making it the
first light rail transport in Southeast Asia. These systems are currently undergoing a multibillion-dollar
expansion. Line 1 runs along the length of Taft Avenue
(N170/R-2) and Rizal Avenue (N150/R-9), and Line 2 runs along Claro M. Recto Avenue (N145/C-1)
and Ramon Magsaysay Boulevard (N180/R-6) from Santa Cruz, through Quezon City, up to Masinag
in Antipolo, Rizal. The main terminal of the Philippine National
Railways lies within the city. One commuter railway within Metro Manila is
in operation. The line runs in a general north-south direction
from Tutuban (Tondo) toward the province of Laguna. The Port of Manila, located at the western
section of the city at the vicinity of Manila Bay, is the chief seaport of the Philippines. The Pasig River Ferry Service which runs on
the Pasig River is another form of transportation. The city is also served by the Ninoy Aquino
International Airport and Clark International Airport. In 2006, Forbes magazine ranked Manila the
world’s most congested city. According to Waze’s 2015 “Global Driver Satisfaction
Index”, Manila is the town with the worst traffic worldwide. Manila is notorious for its frequent traffic
jams and high densities. The government has undertaken several projects
to alleviate the traffic in the city. Some of the projects include: the proposed
construction of a new viaduct or underpass at the intersection of España Boulevard and
Lacson Avenue, the construction of the Metro Manila Skyway Stage 3, the proposed LRT Line
2 West Extension Project from Recto Avenue to Pier 4 of the Manila North Harbor, the
proposed construction of the PNR East-West line which will run through España Boulevard
up to Quezon City, and the expansion and widening of several national and local roads. However, such projects have yet to make any
meaningful impact, and the traffic jams and congestion continue unabated.The Metro Manila
Dream Plan seeks to address these urban transport problems. It consists of a list of short term priority
projects and medium to long term infrastructure projects that will last up to 2030.===Utilities=======Water and electricity====
Water services used to be provided by the Metropolitan Waterworks and Sewerage System,
which served 30% of the city with most other sewage being directly dumped into storm drains,
septic tanks, or open canals. MWSS was privatized in 1997, which split the
water concession into the east and west zones. The Maynilad Water Services took over the
west zone of which Manila is a part. It now provides the supply and delivery of
potable water and sewerage system in Manila, but it does not provide service to the southeastern
part of the city which belongs to the east zone that is served by Manila Water. Electric services are provided by Meralco,
the sole electric power distributor in Metro Manila.==Healthcare==The Manila Health Department is responsible
for the planning and implementation of the health care programs provided by the city
government. It operates 59 health centers and six city-run
hospitals, which are free of charge for the city’s constituents. The six public city-run hospitals are the
Ospital ng Maynila Medical Center, Ospital ng Sampaloc, Gat Andres Bonifacio Memorial
Medical Center, Ospital ng Tondo, Sta. Ana Hospital, and Justice Jose Abad Santos
General Hospital. Manila is also the site of the Philippine
General Hospital, the tertiary state-owned hospital administered and operated by the
University of the Philippines Manila. The city is also planning to put up an education,
research and hospital facility for cleft-palate patients.Manila’s healthcare is also provided
by private corporations. Private hospitals that operates in the city
are the Manila Doctors Hospital, Chinese General Hospital and Medical Center, Dr. José R.
Reyes Memorial Medical Center, Metropolitan Medical Center, Our Lady of Lourdes Hospital,
and the University of Santo Tomas Hospital. The Department of Health has its main office
in Manila. The national health department also operates
the San Lazaro Hospital, a special referral tertiary hospital. Manila is also the home to the headquarters
of the World Health Organization’s Regional Office for the Western Pacific and Country
Office for the Philippines. The city has free immunization programs for
children, specifically targeted against the seven major diseases – smallpox, diphtheria,
tetanus, yellow fever, whooping cough, polio, and measles. As of 2016, a total of 31,115 children age
one and below has been “fully immunized”. The Manila Dialysis Center that provides free
services for the poor has been cited by the United Nations Committee on Innovation, Competitiveness
and Public-Private Partnerships as a model for public-private partnership (PPP) projects.==Education==The center of education since the colonial
period, Manila — particularly Intramuros — is home to several Philippine universities
and colleges as well as its oldest ones. It served as the home of the University of
Santo Tomas (1611), Colegio de San Juan de Letran (1620), Ateneo de Manila University
(1859), Lyceum of the Philippines University and the Mapua Institute of Technology. Only Colegio de San Juan de Letran (1620)
remains at Intramuros; the University of Santo Tomas transferred to a new campus at Sampaloc
in 1927, and Ateneo left Intramuros for Loyola Heights, Quezon City (while still retaining
“de Manila” in its name) in 1952. The University of the City of Manila (Pamantasan
ng Lungsod ng Maynila) located at Intramuros, and Universidad de Manila located just outside
the walled city, are both owned and operated by the Manila city government. The University of the Philippines (1908),
the premier state university, was established in Ermita, Manila. It moved its central administrative offices
from Manila to Diliman in 1949 and eventually made the original campus the University of
the Philippines Manila – the oldest of the constituent universities of the University
of the Philippines System and the center of health sciences education in the country. The city is also the site of the main campus
of the Polytechnic University of the Philippines, the largest university in the country in terms
of student population.The University Belt refers to the area where there is a high concentration
or a cluster of colleges and universities in the city and it is commonly understood
as the one where the San Miguel, Quiapo and Sampaloc districts meet. Generally, it includes the western end of
España Boulevard, Nicanor Reyes St. (formerly Morayta St.), the eastern end of Claro M.
Recto Avenue (formerly Azcarraga), Legarda Avenue, Mendiola Street, and the different
side streets. Each of the colleges and universities found
here are at a short walking distance of each other. Another cluster of colleges lies along the
southern bank of the Pasig River, mostly at the Intramuros and Ermita districts, and still
a smaller cluster is found at the southernmost part of Malate near the city limits such as
the private co-educational institution of De La Salle University, the largest of all
De La Salle University System of schools. The Division of the City Schools of Manila,
a branch of the Department of Education, refers to the city’s three-tier public education
system. It governs the 71 public elementary schools,
32 public high schools. The city also contains the Manila Science
High School, the pilot science high school of the Philippines.==Notable people====Sister cities=====Asia Pacific======Europe===
Bucharest, Romania Lisbon, Portugal
Madrid, Spain Màlaga, Spain
Moscow, Russia Nice, France===Americas=====International relations=====Consulates=====Pending transboundary nominations==In 2014, the idea to nominate the Manila-Acapulco
Galleon Trade Route was initiated by the Mexican ambassador to UNESCO with the Filipino ambassador
to UNESCO. An Experts’ Roundtable Meeting was held at
the University of Santo Tomas on April 23, 2015 as part of the preparation of the Philippines
for the possible transnational nomination of the Manila-Acapulco Galleon Trade Route
to the World Heritage List. The nomination will be made jointly with Mexico. The papers presented and discussed during
the roundtable meeting will be synthesized into a working document to establish the route’s
Outstanding Universal Value.The Mexican side reiterated that they will also follow suit
with the preparations for the route’s nomination. Spain has also backed the nomination of the
Manila-Acapulco Trade Route Route in the UNESCO World Heritage List and has also suggested
the Archives of the Manila-Acapulco Galleons to be nominated as part of a separate UNESCO
list, the UNESCO Memory of the World Register.==See also==
Manila – Wikipedia book Tondo (historical polity)
Cities of the Philippines Greater Manila Area
Imperial Manila Rajahnate of Maynila
List of cities in the Philippines Mega Manila
SM Mall of Asia Intramuros
Binondo Escolta Street
Rizal Avenue Hidalgo Street==Notes====References====Sources==
Moore, Charles (1921). “Daniel H. Burnham: Planner of Cities”. Houghton Mifflin and Co., Boston and New York.==External links==Official Website of the City of Manila
Geographic data related to Manila at OpenStreetMap

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *