Havana | Wikipedia audio article

Havana | Wikipedia audio article


Havana (; Spanish: La Habana [la aˈβana]
(listen)) is the capital city, largest city, province, major port, and leading commercial
center of Cuba. The city has a population of 2.1 million inhabitants,
and it spans a total of 781.58 km2 (301.77 sq mi) – making it the largest city by area,
the most populous city, and the fourth largest metropolitan area in the Caribbean region.The
city of Havana was founded by the Spanish in the 16th century and due to its strategic
location it served as a springboard for the Spanish conquest of the Americas, becoming
a stopping point for treasure-laden Spanish galleons returning to Spain. The King Philip II of Spain granted Havana
the title of City in 1592. Walls as well as forts were built to protect
the old city. The sinking of the U.S. battleship Maine in
Havana’s harbor in 1898 was the immediate cause of the Spanish–American War.The city
is the center of the Cuban government, and home to various ministries, headquarters of
businesses and over 90 diplomatic offices. The current mayor is Marta Hernández of the
Communist Party of Cuba (PCC). In 2009, the city/province had the third highest
income in the country.Contemporary Havana can essentially be described as three cities
in one: Old Havana, Vedado and the newer suburban districts. The city extends mostly westward and southward
from the bay, which is entered through a narrow inlet and which divides into three main harbors:
Mari melena, Guanabacoa and Antares. The sluggish Almendares River traverses the
city from south to north, entering the Straits of Florida a few miles west of the bay.The
city attracts over a million tourists annually; the Official Census for Havana reports that
in 2010 the city was visited by 1,176,627 international tourists, a 20% increase from
2005. Old Havana was declared a UNESCO World Heritage
Site in 1982. The city is also noted for its history, culture,
architecture and monuments. As typical of Cuba, Havana experiences a tropical
climate.==Etymology==
Most native settlements became the site of Spanish colonial cities retaining their original
Taíno names; the name Habana could be based on the name of a local Taíno chief Habaguanex.==History=====
Colonial period=======16th century====Conquistador Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar
founded Havana on August 25, 1515, on the southern coast of the island, near the present
town of Surgidero de Batabanó, or more likely on the banks of the Mayabeque River close
to Playa Mayabeque. All attempts to found a city on Cuba’s south
coast failed. However, an early map of Cuba drawn in 1514
places the town at the mouth of this river.Between 1514 and 1519 the Spanish established at least
two different settlements on the north coast, one of them in La Chorrera, today in the neighborhoods
of Vedado and Miramar, next to the Almendares River. The town that became Havana finally originated
adjacent to what was then called Puerto de Carenas (literally, “Careening Bay”), in 1519. The quality of this natural bay, which now
hosts Havana’s harbor, warranted this change of location. Pánfilo de Narváez gave Havana – the sixth
town founded by the Spanish on Cuba – its name: San Cristóbal de la Habana. The name combines San Cristóbal, patron saint
of Havana. Shortly after the founding of Cuba’s first
cities, the island served as little more than a base for the Conquista of other lands. Havana began as a trading port, and suffered
regular attacks by buccaneers, pirates, and French corsairs. The first attack and resultant burning of
the city was by the French corsair Jacques de Sores in 1555. Such attacks convinced the Spanish Crown to
fund the construction of the first fortresses in the main cities – not only to counteract
the pirates and corsairs, but also to exert more control over commerce with the West Indies,
and to limit the extensive contrabando (black market) that had arisen due to the trade restrictions
imposed by the Casa de Contratación of Seville (the crown-controlled trading house that held
a monopoly on New World trade). Ships from all over the New World carried
products first to Havana, in order to be taken by the fleet to Spain. The thousands of ships gathered in the city’s
bay also fueled Havana’s agriculture and manufacture, since they had to be supplied with food, water,
and other products needed to traverse the ocean. On December 20, 1592, King Philip II of Spain
granted Havana the title of City. Later on, the city would be officially designated
as “Key to the New World and Rampart of the West Indies” by the Spanish Crown. In the meantime, efforts to build or improve
the defensive infrastructures of the city continued.====17th century====Havana expanded greatly in the 17th century. New buildings were constructed from the most
abundant materials of the island, mainly wood, combining various Iberian architectural styles,
as well as borrowing profusely from Canarian characteristics. In 1649, an epidemic of the often fatal Yellow
fever brought from Cartagena in Colombia affected a third of the European population of Havana.====18th century====By the middle of the 18th century Havana had
more than seventy thousand inhabitants, and was the third-largest city in the Americas,
ranking behind Lima and Mexico City but ahead of Boston and New York. During the 18th century Havana was the most
important of the Spanish ports because it had facilities where ships could be refitted
and, by 1740, it had become Spain’s largest and most active shipyard and only drydock
in the New World.The city was captured by the British during the Seven Years’ War. The episode began on June 6, 1762, when at
dawn, a British fleet, comprising more than 50 ships and a combined force of over 11,000
men of the Royal Navy and Army, sailed into Cuban waters and made an amphibious landing
east of Havana. The British immediately opened up trade with
their North American and Caribbean colonies, causing a rapid transformation of Cuban society. Less than a year after Havana was seized,
the Peace of Paris was signed by the three warring powers thus ending the Seven Years’
War. The treaty gave Britain Florida in exchange
for the return of the city of Havana on to Spain.After regaining the city, the Spanish
transformed Havana into the most heavily fortified city in the Americas. Construction began on what was to become the
Fortress of San Carlos de la Cabaña, the third biggest Spanish fortification in the
New World after Castillo San Cristóbal (the biggest) and Castillo San Felipe del Morro
both in San Juan, Puerto Rico. On January 15, 1796, the remains of Christopher
Columbus were transported to the island from Santo Domingo. They rested here until 1898, when they were
transferred to Seville’s Cathedral, after Spain’s loss of Cuba.====19th century====As trade between Caribbean and North American
states increased in the early 19th century, Havana became a flourishing and fashionable
city. Havana’s theaters featured the most distinguished
actors of the age, and prosperity among the burgeoning middle-class led to expensive new
classical mansions being erected. During this period Havana became known as
the Paris of the Antilles. In 1837, the first railroad was constructed,
a 51 km (32 mi) stretch between Havana and Bejucal, which was used for transporting sugar
from the valley of Güines to the harbor. With this, Cuba became the fifth country in
the world to have a railroad, and the first Spanish-speaking country. Throughout the century, Havana was enriched
by the construction of additional cultural facilities, such as the Tacon Teatre, one
of the most luxurious in the world. The fact that slavery was legal in Cuba until
1886 led to Southern American interest, including a plan by the Knights of the Golden Circle
to create a ‘Golden Circle’ with a 1200 mile-radius centered on Havana. After the Confederate States of America were
defeated in the American Civil War in 1865, many former slaveholders continued to run
plantations by moving to Havana. In 1863, the city walls were knocked down
so that the metropolis could be enlarged. At the end of the 19th century, Havana witnessed
the final moments of Spanish colonialism in the Americas.===Republican period and post-revolution
===The 20th century began with Cuba, and therefore
Havana, under occupation by the United States. The US occupation officially ended when Tomás
Estrada Palma, first president of Cuba, took office on 20 May 1902. During the Republican Period, from 1902 to
1959, the city saw a new era of development. Cuba recovered from the devastation of war
to become a well-off country, with the third largest middle class in the hemisphere. Apartment buildings to accommodate the new
middle class, as well as mansions for the Cuban tycoons, were built at a fast pace. Numerous luxury hotels, casinos and nightclubs
were constructed during the 1930s to serve Havana’s burgeoning tourist industry, which
greatly benefited by the U.S. prohibition on alcohol from 1920 to 1933. In the 1930s, organized crime characters were
not unaware of Havana’s nightclub and casino life, and they made their inroads in the city. Santo Trafficante, Jr. took the roulette wheel
at the Sans Souci Casino, Meyer Lansky directed the Hotel Habana Riviera, with Lucky Luciano
at the Hotel Nacional Casino. At the time, Havana became an exotic capital
of appeal and numerous activities ranging from marinas, grand prix car racing, musical
shows, and parks. It was also the favorite destination of sex
tourists.Havana achieved the title of being the Latin American city with the biggest middle
class population per-capita, simultaneously accompanied by gambling and corruption where
gangsters and stars were known to mix socially. During this era, Havana was generally producing
more revenue than Las Vegas, Nevada, whose boom as a tourist destination began only after
Havana’s casinos closed in 1959. In 1958, about 300,000 American tourists visited
the city. After the revolution of 1959, the new régime
under Fidel Castro promised to improve social services, public housing, and official buildings. Nevertheless, after Castro’s abrupt expropriation
of all private property and industry (May 1959 onwards) under a strong communist model
backed by the Soviet Union followed by the U.S. embargo, shortages that affected Cuba
in general hit Havana especially hard. By 1966–68, the Cuban government had nationalized
all privately owned business entities in Cuba, down to “certain kinds of small retail forms
of commerce” (law No. 1076). A severe economic downturn occurred after
the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. Soviet subsidies ended, representing billions
of dollars which the Soviet Union had given the Cuban government. Many believed the revolutionary government
would soon collapse, as happened to the Soviet satellite states of Eastern Europe. However, contrary to events in Europe, Cuba’s
communist government persevered through the 1990s and persists to this day. After many years of prohibition, the communist
government increasingly turned to tourism for new financial revenue, and has allowed
foreign investors to build new hotels and develop the hospitality industry. In Old Havana, effort has also gone into rebuilding
for tourist purposes, and a number of streets and squares have been rehabilitated. But Old Havana is a large city, and the restoration
efforts concentrate in all on less than 10% of its area.==Geography==Havana lies on the northern coast of Cuba,
south of the Florida Keys, where the Gulf of Mexico joins the Atlantic Ocean. The city extends mostly westward and southward
from the bay, which is entered through a narrow inlet and which divides into three main harbours:
Marimelena, Guanabacoa, and Atarés. The sluggish Almendares River traverses the
city from south to north, entering the Straits of Florida a few miles west of the bay. The low hills on which the city lies rise
gently from the deep blue waters of the straits. A noteworthy elevation is the 200-foot-high
(60-metre) limestone ridge that slopes up from the east and culminates in the heights
of La Cabaña and El Morro, the sites of colonial fortifications overlooking the eastern bay. Another notable rise is the hill to the west
that is occupied by the University of Havana and the Prince’s Castle. Outside the city, higher hills rise on the
west and east.===Climate===
Havana, like much of Cuba, has a tropical climate that is tempered by the island’s position
in the belt of the trade winds and by the warm offshore currents. Under the Köppen climate classification,
Havana has a tropical savanna climate that closely borders on a tropical monsoon climate. Average temperatures range from 22 °C (72
°F) in January and February to 28 °C (82 °F) in August. The temperature seldom drops below 10 °C
(50 °F). The lowest temperature was 1 °C (34 °F)
in Santiago de Las Vegas, Boyeros. The lowest recorded temperature in Cuba was
32 °F (0 °C) in Bainoa, Mayabeque Province (before 2011 the eastern part of Havana province). Rainfall is heaviest in June and October and
lightest from December through April, averaging 1,200 mm (47 in) annually. Hurricanes occasionally strike the island,
but they ordinarily hit the south coast, and damage in Havana has been less than elsewhere
in the country. Tornadoes can be somewhat rare in Cuba, however,
on the evening of January 28, 2019, a very rare strong F4 tornado struck the eastern
side of Havana, Cuba’s capital city. The tornado caused extensive damage, destroying
at least 90 homes, killing four people and injuring 195. By February 4, the death toll had increased
to six, with 11 people still in critical condition.The table below lists temperature averages:==Cityscape==Contemporary Havana can essentially be described
as three cities in one: Old Havana, Vedado, and the newer suburban districts. Old Havana, with its narrow streets and overhanging
balconies, is the traditional centre of part of Havana’s commerce, industry, and entertainment,
as well as being a residential area. To the west a newer section, centred on the
uptown area known as Vedado, has become the rival of Old Havana for commercial activity
and nightlife. The Capitolio Nacional building marks the
beginning of Centro Habana, a working-class neighborhood that lies between Vedado and
Old Havana. Barrio Chino and the Real Fabrica de Tabacos
Partagás, one of Cuba’s oldest cigar factories is located in the area.A third Havana is that
of the more affluent residential and industrial districts that spread out mostly to the west. Among these is Marianao, one of the newer
parts of the city, dating mainly from the 1920s. Some of the suburban exclusivity was lost
after the revolution, many of the suburban homes having been nationalized by the Cuban
government to serve as schools, hospitals, and government offices. Several private country clubs were converted
to public recreational centres. Miramar, located west of Vedado along the
coast, remains Havana’s exclusive area; mansions, foreign embassies, diplomatic residences,
upscale shops, and facilities for wealthy foreigners are common in the area. The International School of Havana is located
in the Miramar neighborhood. In the 1980s many parts of Old Havana, including
the Plaza de Armas, became part of a projected 35-year multimillion-dollar restoration project,
for Cubans to appreciate their past and boost tourism. In the past ten years, with the assistance
of foreign aid and under the support of local city historian Eusebio Leal Spengler, large
parts of Habana Vieja have been renovated. The city is moving forward with their renovations,
with most of the major plazas (Plaza Vieja, Plaza de la Catedral, Plaza de San Francisco
and Plaza de Armas) and major tourist streets (Obispo and Mercaderes) near completion.===Districts===
The city is divided into 15 municipalities – or boroughs, which are further subdivided
into 105 wards (consejos populares). (Numbers refer to map). Playa: Santa Fe, Siboney, Cubanacán, Ampliación
Almendares, Miramar, Sierra, Ceiba, Buena Vista. Plaza de la Revolución: El Carmelo, Vedado-Malecón,
Rampa, Príncipe, Plaza, Nuevo Vedado-Puentes Grandes, Colón-Nuevo Vedado, Vedado. Centro Habana: Cayo Hueso, Pueblo Nuevo, Los
Sitios, Dragones, Colón. La Habana Vieja: Prado, Catedral, Plaza Vieja,
Belén, San Isidro, Jesús María, Tallapiedra. Regla: Guaicanimar, Loma Modelo, Casablanca. La Habana del Este: Camilo Cienfuegos, Cojímar,
Guiteras, Alturas de Alamar, Alamar Este, Guanabo, Campo Florido, Alamar-Playa. Guanabacoa: Mañana-Habana Nueva, Villa I,
Villa II, Chivas-Roble, Debeche-Nalon, Hata-Naranjo, Peñalver-Bacuranao, Minas-Barreras. San Miguel del Padrón: Rocafort, Luyanó
Moderno, Diezmero, San Francisco de Paula, Dolores-Veracruz, Jacomino. Diez de Octubre: Luyanó, Jesús del Monte,
Lawton, Vista Alegre, Goyle, Sevillano, La Víbora, Santos Suárez, Tamarindo. Cerro: Latinoamericano, Pilar-Atares, Cerro,
Las Cañas, El Canal, Palatino, Armada. Marianao: CAI-Los Ángeles, Pocito-Palmas,
Zamora-Cocosolo, Libertad, Pogoloti-Belén-Finlay, Santa Felicia. La Lisa : Alturas de La Lisa, Balcón Arimao,
El Cano-Valle Grande-Bello 26 y Morado, Punta Brava, Arroyo Arenas, San Agustín, Versalles-Coronela. Boyeros: Santiago de Las Vegas, Nuevo Santiago,
Boyeros, Wajay, Calabazar, Altahabana-Capdevila, Armada-Aldabó. Arroyo Naranjo: Los Pinos, Poey, Víbora Park,
Mantilla, Párraga, Calvario-Fraternidad, Guinera, Eléctrico, Managua, Callejas. Cotorro: San Pedro-Centro Cotorro, Santa Maria
del Rosario, Lotería, Cuatro Caminos, Magdalena-Torriente, Alberro.===Architecture===Due to Havana’s almost five hundred-year existence,
the city boasts some of the most diverse styles of architecture in the world, from castles
built in the late 16th century to modernist present-day high-rises. The present condition of many buildings in
Havana has deteriorated since the 1959 Revolution. Numerous collapses have resulted in injuries
and deaths due to a lack of maintenance and crumbling structures. NeoclassicalNeoclassism was introduced into
the city in the 1840s, at the time including Gas public lighting in 1848 and the railroad
in 1837. In the second half of the 18th century, sugar
and coffee production increased rapidly, which became essential in the development of Havana’s
most prominent architectural style. Many wealthy Habaneros took their inspiration
from the French; this can be seen within the interiors of upper-class houses such as the
Aldama Palace built in 1844. This is considered the most important neoclassical
residential building in Cuba and typifies the design of many houses of this period with
portales of neoclassical columns facing open spaces or courtyards. In 1925 Jean-Claude Nicolas Forestier, the
head of urban planning in Paris moved to Havana for five years to collaborate with architects
and landscape designers. In the master planning of the city his aim
was to create a harmonic balance between the classical built form and the tropical landscape. He embraced and connected the city’s road
networks while accentuating prominent landmarks. His influence has left a huge mark on Havana
although many of his ideas were cut short by the great depression in 1929. During the first decades of the 20th century
Havana expanded more rapidly than at any time during its history. Great wealth prompted architectural styles
to be influenced from abroad. The peak of Neoclassicism came with the construction
of the Vedado district (begun in 1859). This area features a number of set back well-proportioned
buildings in the Neoclassical style Colonial and Baroque
Riches were brought from the colonialists into and through Havana as it was a key transshipment
point between the new world and old world. As a result, Havana was the most heavily fortified
city in the Americas. Most examples of early architecture can be
seen in military fortifications such as La Fortaleza de San Carlos de la Cabana (1558–1577)
designed by Battista Antonelli and the Castillo del Morro (1589–1630). This sits at the entrance of Havana Bay and
provides an insight into the supremacy and wealth at that time. Old Havana was also protected by a defensive
wall begun in 1674 but had already overgrown its boundaries when it was completed in 1767,
becoming the new neighbourhood of Centro Habana. The influence from different styles and cultures
can be seen in Havana’s colonial architecture, with a diverse range of Moorish architecture,
Spanish, Italian, Greek and Roman. The San Carlos and San Ambrosio Seminary (18th
century) is a good example of early Spanish influenced architecture. The Havana cathedral (1748–1777) dominating
the Plaza de la Catedral (1749) is the best example of Cuban Baroque. Surrounding it are the former palaces of the
Count de Casa-Bayona (1720–1746) Marquis de Arcos (1746) and the Marquis de Aguas Claras
(1751–1775). Art Deco and EclecticThe first echoes of the
Art Deco movement in Havana started in 1927, in the residential area of Miramar. The Edificio Bacardi, (1930) is thought to
be the best example of Art-deco architecture in the city and the first tall Art Deco building
as well, followed by the Hotel Nacional de Cuba (1930) and the López Serrano Building
in 1932. The FOCSA Building was finished in 1956. The year 1928 marked the beginning of the
reaction against the Spanish Renaissance style architecture. Art Deco started in the lush and wealthy suburbs
of Miramar, Marianao, and Vedado.The city’s eclectic architectural sights begins in Centro
Habana. The Central Railway Terminal (1912), and the
Museum of the Revolution (1920) are example of Eclectic architecture. Modernism
Many high-rise office buildings, and apartment complexes, along with some hotels built in
the 1950s dramatically altered the skyline. Modernism, therefore, transformed much of
the city and is known its individual buildings of high quality rather than its larger key
buildings. Examples of the latter are Habana Libre (1958),
which before the revolution was the Havana Hilton Hotel and La Rampa movie theater (1955). Famous architects such as Walter Gropius,
Richard Neutra and Oscar Niemeyer all passed through the city, while strong influences
can be seen in Havana at this time from Le Corbusier and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe. The Edificio Focsa (1956) represents Havana’s
economic dominance at the time. This 35-story complex was conceived and based
on Corbusian ideas of a self-contained city within a city. It contained 400 apartments, garages, a school,
a supermarket, and restaurant on the top floor. This was the tallest concrete structure in
the world at the time (using no steel frame) and the ultimate symbol of luxury and excess. The Havana Riviera Hotel (1957) designed by
Igor B. Polevitzky, a twenty-one-story edifice, when it opened, the Riviera was the largest
purpose-built casino-hotel in Cuba or anywhere in the world, outside Las Vegas (the Havana
Hilton (1958) surpassed its size a year later).===Landmarks and historical centres===Habana Vieja: contains the core of the original
city of Havana. It was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Plaza Vieja: a plaza in Old Havana, it was
the site of executions, processions, bullfights, and fiestas. Fortress San Carlos de la Cabaña, a fortress
located on the east side of the Havana bay, La Cabaña is the most impressive fortress
from colonial times, particularly its walls constructed at the end of the 18th century. El Capitolio Nacional: built in 1929 as the
Senate and House of Representatives, the colossal building is recognizable by its dome which
dominates the city’s skyline. Inside stands the third largest indoor statue
in the world, La Estatua de la República. Nowadays, the Cuban Academy of Sciences headquarters
and the Museo Nacional de Historia Natural (the National Museum of Natural History) has
its venue within the building and contains the largest natural history collection in
the country. El Morro Castle: is a fortress guarding the
entrance to Havana bay; Morro Castle was built because of the threat to the harbor from pirates. Fortress San Salvador de la Punta: a small
fortress built in the 16th century, at the western entry point to the Havana harbour,
it played a crucial role in the defence of Havana during the initial centuries of colonisation. It houses some twenty old guns and military
antiques. Christ of Havana: Havana’s 20-meter (66 ft)
marble statue of Christ (1958) blesses the city from the east hillside of the bay, much
like the famous Cristo Redentor in Rio de Janeiro. The Great Theatre of Havana: is an opera house
famous particularly for the National Ballet of Cuba, it sometimes hosts performances by
the National Opera. The theater is also known as concert hall,
García Lorca, the biggest in Cuba. The Malecon/Sea wall: is the avenue that runs
along the north coast of the city, beside the seawall. The Malecón is the most popular avenue of
Havana, it is known for its sunsets. Hotel Nacional de Cuba: an Art Deco National
Hotel famous in the 1950s as a gambling and entertainment complex. Museo de la Revolución: located in the former
Presidential Palace, with the yacht Granma on display behind the museum. Necrópolis Cristóbal Colón: a cemetery
and open-air museum, it is one of the most famous cemeteries in Latin America, known
for its beauty and magnificence. The cemetery was built in 1876 and has nearly
one million tombs. Some gravestones are decorated with sculpture
by Ramos Blancos, among others.==Coat of arms====Culture==
Havana, by far the leading cultural centre of the country, offers a wide variety of features
that range from museums, palaces, public squares, avenues, churches, fortresses (including the
largest fortified complex in the Americas dating from the 16th through 18th centuries),
ballet and from art and musical festivals to exhibitions of technology. The restoration of Old Havana offered a number
of new attractions, including a museum to house relics of the Cuban revolution. The government placed special emphasis on
cultural activities, many of which are free or involve only a minimal charge.===Old Havana===Old Havana, (La Habana Vieja in Spanish),
contains the core of the original city of Havana, with more than 2,000 hectares it exhibits
almost all the Western architectural styles seen in the New World. La Habana Vieja was founded by the Spanish
in 1519 in the natural harbor of the Bay of Havana. It became a stopping point for the treasure
laden Spanish Galleons on the crossing between the New World and the Old World. In the 17th century it was one of the main
shipbuilding centers. The city was built in baroque and neoclassic
style. Many buildings have fallen in ruin but a number
are being restored. The narrow streets of Old Havana contain many
buildings, accounting for perhaps as many as one-third of the approximately 3,000 buildings
found in Old Havana.Old Havana is the ancient city formed from the port, the official center
and the Plaza de Armas. Alejo Carpentier called Old Havana the place
“de las columnas” (of the columns). The Cuban government is taking many steps
to preserve and to restore Old Havana, through the Office of the city historian, directed
by Eusebio Leal. Old Havana and its fortifications were added
to the UNESCO World Heritage List in 1982. The beauty of Old Havana City attracts millions
of tourists each year who enjoy its rich old culture and folk music. In spring 2015, the largest open-air art exhibition
ever in Cuba took in front of the basilica on the Plaza San Francisco de Asis: Over eight
weeks the United Buddy Bears visited Havana. United Buddy Bears exhibitions are part of
a non-commercial and non-profit project. The main aim is to promote the idea of tolerance
and mutual understanding between countries, cultures and religions and to communicate
a vision of a future peaceful world.===Barrio Chino===Barrio Chino was once Latin America’s largest
and most vibrant Chinese community, incorporated into the city by the early part of the 20th
century. Hundreds of thousands of Chinese workers were
brought in by Spanish settlers from Guangdong, Fujian, Hong Kong, and Macau via Manila, Philippines
starting in the mid-19th century to replace or work alongside African slaves. After completing 8-year contracts, many Chinese
immigrants settled permanently in Havana. The first 206 Chinese-born arrived in Havana
on June 3, 1847. The neighborhood was booming with Chinese
restaurants, laundries, banks, pharmacies, theaters and several Chinese-language newspapers,
the neighborhood comprised 44 square blocks during its prime. The heart of Barrio Chino is on el Cuchillo
de Zanja (or The Zanja Canal). The strip is a pedestrian-only street adorned
with many red lanterns, dancing red paper dragons and other Chinese cultural designs,
there is a great number of restaurants that serve a full spectrum of Chinese dishes – unfortunately
that ‘spectrum’ is said by many not to be related to real Chinese cuisine. The district has two paifang, the larger one
located on Calle Dragones. China donated the materials in the late 1990s. It has a well defined written welcoming sign
in Chinese and Spanish. The smaller arch is located on Zanja strip. The Cuban’s Chinese boom ended when Fidel
Castro’s 1959 revolution seized private businesses, sending tens of thousands of business-minded
Chinese fleeing, mainly to the United States. Descendants are now making efforts to preserve
and revive the culture.===Visual arts===The National Museum of Fine Arts (Museo Nacional
de Bellas Artes) is a Fine Arts museum that exhibits Cuban and International art collections. The museum houses one of the largest collections
of paintings and sculpture from Latin America and is the largest in the Caribbean region. Under the Cuban Ministry of Culture, it occupies
two locations in the vicinity of Havana’s Paseo del Prado, these are the Palace of Fine
Arts, devoted to Cuban art and the Palace of the Asturian Center, dedicated to universal
art. Its artistic heritage is made up of over 45,000
pieces.The Museum of the Revolution (Museo de la Revolución), designed in Havana by
Cuban architect Carlos Maruri, and the Belgian Paul Belau, who came up with an eclectic design,
harmoniously combines Spanish, French and German architectural elements. The museum was the Presidential Palace in
the capital; today, its displays and documents outline Cuba’s history from the beginning
of the neo-colonial period. The building was the site of the Havana Presidential
Palace Attack (1957) by the Directorio Revolucionario Estudiantil. The neo-classical mansion of the Countess
of Revilla de Camargo, today it is the Museum of Decorative Arts (Museo de Artes Decorativas),
known as the “small French Palace of Havana” built between 1924 and 1927, it was designed
in Paris inspired in French Renaissance. The museum has been exhibiting more than 33,000
works dating from the reigns of Louis XV, Louis XVI, and Napoleon III; as well as 16th
to 20th century Oriental pieces, among many other treasures. The Museum has ten permanent exhibit halls. Among them are prominent porcelain articles
from the factories in Sèvres and Chantilly, France; Meissen, Germany; and Wedgwood, England,
as well as Chinese from the Qianlong Emperor period and Japanese from the Imari. The furniture comes from Stéphane Boudin,
Jean Henri Riesener and several others. Several museums in Old Havana houses furniture,
silverware, pottery, glass and other items from the colonial period. One of these is the Palacio de los Capitanes
Generales, where Spanish governors once lived. The Casa de Africa presents another aspect
of Cuba’s history, it houses a large collection of Afro-Cuban religious artifacts. Other museums in the city include Casa de
los Árabes (House of Arabs) and the Casa de Asia (House of Asia) with Middle and Far
Eastern collections. Havana’s Museo del Automobil has an impressive
collection of vehicles dating back to a 1905 Cadillac. While most museums of Havana are situated
in Old Havana, few of them can also be found in Vedado. In total, Havana has around 50 museums, including
the National Museum of Music; the Museum of Dance and Rum; the Cigar Museum; the Napoleonic,
Colonial and Oricha Museums; the Museum of Anthropology; the Ernest Hemingway Museum;
the José Martí Monument; the Aircraft Museum (Museo del Aire). There are also museums of Natural Sciences,
the City, Archeology, Gold-and-Silverwork, Perfume, Pharmaceuticals, Sports, Numismatics,
and Weapons.===Performing arts===Facing Havana’s Central Park is the baroque
Great Theatre of Havana, a prominent theatre built in 1837. It is now home of the National Ballet of Cuba
and the International Ballet Festival of Havana, one of the oldest in the New World. The façade of the building is adorned with
a stone and marble statue. There are also sculptural pieces by Giuseppe
Moretti, representing allegories depicting benevolence, education, music and theatre. The principal theatre is the García Lorca
Auditorium, with seats for 1,500 and balconies. Glories of its rich history; the Italian tenor
Enrico Caruso sang, the Russian ballerina Anna Pavlova danced, and the French Sarah
Bernhardt acted. Other important theatres in the city includes
the National Theater of Cuba, housed in a huge modern building located in Plaza de la
Revolucion, decorated with works by Cuban artists. The National Theater includes two main theatre
stages, the Avellaneda Auditorium and the Covarrubias Auditorium, as well as a smaller
theatre workshop space on the ninth floor. The Karl Marx Theater with its large auditorium
have a seating capacity of 5,500 spectators, is generally used for concerts and other events,
it is also one of the venues for the annual Havana Film Festival.===Festivals===Havana Film Festival (The International Festival
of New Latin American cinema) International Ballet Festival of Havana
Havana International Jazz Festival==Tourism==Havana attracts over a million tourists annually,
the Official Census for Havana reports that in 2010 the city was visited by 1,176,627
international tourists, a 20% increase from 2005. The city has long been a popular attraction
for tourists. Between 1915 and 1930, Havana hosted more
tourists than any other location in the Caribbean. The influx was due in large part to Cuba’s
proximity to the United States, where restrictive prohibition on alcohol and other pastimes
stood in stark contrast to the island’s traditionally relaxed attitude to leisure pursuits. A pamphlet published by E.C. Kropp Co., Milwaukee, WI, between 1921 and
1939 promoting tourism in Havana, Cuba, can be found in the University of Houston Digital
Library, Havana, Cuba, The Summer Land of the World, Digital Collection. With the deterioration of Cuba – United
States relations and the imposition of the trade embargo on the island in 1961, tourism
dropped drastically and did not return to anything close to its pre-revolution levels
until 1989. The revolutionary government in general, and
Fidel Castro in particular, initially opposed any considerable development of the tourism
industry, linking it to the debauchery and criminal activities of times past. In the late 1970s, however, Castro changed
his stance and, in 1982, the Cuban government passed a foreign investment code which opened
a number of sectors, tourism included, to foreign capital. Through the creation of firms open to such
foreign investment (such as Cubanacan), Cuba began to attract capital for hotel development,
managing to increase the number of tourists from 130,000 (in 1980) to 326,000 (by the
end of that decade). Havana has also been a popular health tourism
destination for more than 20 years. Foreign patients travel to Cuba, Havana in
particular, for a wide range of treatments including eye-surgery, neurological disorders
such as multiple sclerosis and Parkinson’s disease, and orthopaedics. Many patients are from Latin America, although
medical treatment for retinitis pigmentosa, often known as night blindness, has attracted
many patients from Europe and North America.==Economy=====
Industry===Havana has a diversified economy, with traditional
sectors, such as manufacturing, construction, transportation and communications, and new
or revived ones such as biotechnology and tourism. The city’s economy first developed on the
basis of its location, which made it one of the early great trade centres in the New World. Sugar and a flourishing slave trade first
brought riches to the city, and later, after independence, it became a renowned resort. Despite efforts by Fidel Castro’s government
to spread Cuba’s industrial activity to all parts of the island, Havana remains the centre
of much of the nation’s industry. The traditional sugar industry, upon which
the island’s economy has been based for three centuries, is centred elsewhere on the island
and controls some three-fourths of the export economy. But light manufacturing facilities, meat-packing
plants, and chemical and pharmaceutical operations are concentrated in Havana. Other food-processing industries are also
important, along with shipbuilding, vehicle manufacturing, production of alcoholic beverages
(particularly rum), textiles, and tobacco products, particularly the world-famous Habanos
cigars. Although the harbours of Cienfuegos and Matanzas,
in particular, have been developed under the revolutionary government, Havana remains Cuba’s
primary port facility; 50% of Cuban imports and exports pass through Havana. The port also supports a considerable fishing
industry. In 2000, nearly 89% of the city’s officially
recorded labour force worked for government-run agencies, institutions or enterprises. Havana, on average, has the country’s highest
incomes and human development indicators. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, Cuba
re-emphasized tourism as a major industry leading to its recovery. Tourism is now Havana and Cuba’s primary economic
source.Havana’s economy is still in flux, despite Raul Castro’s embrace of free enterprise
in 2011. Though there was an uptick in small businesses
in 2011, many have since gone out of business, due to lack of business and income on the
part of the local residents, whose salaries average $20 per month.===Commerce and finance===After the Revolution, Cuba’s traditional capitalist
free-enterprise system was replaced by a heavily socialized economic system. In Havana, Cuban-owned businesses and U.S.-owned
businesses were nationalized and today most businesses operate solely under state control. In Old Havana and throughout Vedado there
are several small private businesses, such as shoe-repair shops or dressmaking facilities. Banking as well is also under state control,
and the National Bank of Cuba, headquartered in Havana, is the control center of the Cuban
economy. Its branches in some cases occupy buildings
that were in pre-revolutionary times the offices of Cuban or foreign banks. In the late 1990s Vedado, located along the
atlantic waterfront, started to represent the principal commercial area. It was developed extensively between 1930
and 1960, when Havana developed as a major destination for U.S. tourists; high-rise hotels,
casinos, restaurants, and upscale commercial establishments, many reflecting the art deco
style.Vedado is today Havana’s financial district, the main banks, airline companies offices,
shops, most businesses headquarters, numerous high-rise apartments and hotels, are located
in the area. The University of Havana is located in Vedado.==Demographics==
By the end of 2012 official Census, 19.1% of the population of Cuba lived in Havana. According to the census of 2012, the population
was 2,106,146 The city has an average life expectancy of 76.81 years at birth. In 2009, there were 1,924 people living with
HIV/AIDS in the city, 78.9% of these are men, and 21.1% being women.According to the 2012
official census (the Cuban census and similar studies use the term “skin colour” instead
of “race”). White: 58.4%, (Spanish descent were most common)
Mestizo or Mulatto (mixed race): 26.4% Black: 15.2%
Asian: 0.2%There are few mestizos in contrast to many other Latin American countries, because
the Native Indian population was virtually wiped out by Eurasian diseases in colonial
times.Havana agglomeration grew rapidly during the first half of the 20th century reaching
1 million inhabitants in the 1943 census. The con-urbanization expanded over the Havana
municipality borders into neighbor municipalities of Marianao, Regla and Guanabacoa. Starting from the 1980s, the city’s population
is growing slowly as a result of balanced development policies, low birth rate, its
relatively high rate of emigration abroad, and controlled domestic migration. Because of the city and country’s low birth
rate and high life expectancy, its age structure is similar to a developed country, with Havana
having an even higher proportion of elderly than the country as a whole.The Cuban government
controls the movement of people into Havana on the grounds that the Havana metropolitan
area (home to nearly 20% of the country’s population) is overstretched in terms of land
use, water, electricity, transportation, and other elements of the urban infrastructure. There is a population of internal migrants
to Havana nicknamed “palestinos” (Palestinians), sometimes considered a racist term, these
mostly hail from the eastern region of Oriente.The city’s significant minority of Chinese, mostly
Cantonese ancestors, were brought in the mid-19th century by Spanish settlers via the Philippines
with work contracts and after completing 8-year contracts many Chinese immigrants settled
permanently in Havana. Before the revolution the Chinese population
counted to over 200,000, today, Chinese ancestors could count up to 100,000. Chinese born/ native Chinese (mostly Cantonese
as well) are around 400 presently. There are some 3,000 Russians living in the
city; as reported by the Russian Embassy in Havana, most are women married to Cubans who
had studied in the Soviet Union. Havana also shelters other non-Cuban population
of an unknown size. There is a population of several thousand
North African teen and pre-teen refugees.===Religion===Roman Catholics form the largest religious
group in Havana. Havana is one of the three Metropolitan sees
on the island (the others being Camaguëy and Santiago), with two suffragan bishoprics:
Matanzas and Pinar del Río. Its patron saint is San Cristobal (Saint Christopher),
to whom the cathedral is devoted. it also has a minor basilica, Basílica Santuario
Nacional de Nuestra Señora de la Caridad del Cobre and two other national shrines,
Jesús Nazareno del Rescate and San Lázaro (El Rincón). It received papal visits from three successive
supreme pontiffs: Pope John Paul II (January 1998), Pope Benedict XVI (March 2012) and
Pope Francis (September 2015). The Jewish community in Havana has reduced
after the Revolution from once having embraced more than 15,000 Jews, many of whom had fled
Nazi persecution and subsequently left Cuba to Miami or moved to Israel after Castro took
to power in 1959. The city once had five synagogues, but only
three remain (one Orthodox, and two Conservative: one Conservative Ashkenazi and one Conservative
Sephardic), Beth Shalom Grand Synagogue is one of them and another that is a hybrid of
all 3 put together. In February 2007 the New York Times estimated
that there were about 1,500 known Jews living in Havana.===Poverty and slums===
The years after the Soviet Union collapsed in 1991, the city, and Cuba in general have
suffered decades of economic deterioration. The national government does not have an official
definition of poverty. The government researchers argue that “poverty”
in most commonly accepted meanings does not really exist in Cuba, but rather that there
is a sector of the population that can be described as “at risk” or “vulnerable” using
internationally accepted measures.The generic term “slum” is seldom used in Cuba, substandard
housing is described: housing type, housing conditions, building materials, and settlement
type. The National Housing Institute considers units
in solares (a large inner-city mansion or older hotel or boarding house subdivided into
rooms, sometimes with over 60 families) and shanty towns to be the “precarious housing
stock” and tracks their number. Most slum units are concentrated in the inner-city
municipalities of Old Havana and Centro Habana, as well as such neighbourhoods as Atarés
in Regla. People living in slums have access to the
same education, health care, job opportunities and social security as those who live in formerly
privileged neighbourhoods. Shanty towns are scattered throughout the
city except for in a few central areas.Over 9% of Havana’s population live in cuartería
(solares, ciudadela), 3.3% in shanty towns, and 0.3% in refugee shelters. This does not include an estimate of the number
of people living in housing in “fair” or “poor” condition because in many cases these units
do not necessarily constitute slum housing but rather are basically sound dwellings needing
repairs. According to Instituto Nacional de Vivienda
(National Housing Institute) official figures, in 2001, 64% of Havana’s 586,768 units were
considered in “good” condition, up from 50% in 1990. Some 20% were in “fair” condition and 16%
in “poor” condition. Partial or total building collapses are not
uncommon, although the number had been cut in half by the end of the 1990s as the worst
units disappeared and others were repaired. Buildings in Old Havana and Centro Habana
are especially exposed to the elements: high humidity, the corrosive effects of salt spray
from proximity to the coast, and occasional flooding.==Transport=====Urban buses===
The city’s public buses are carried out by two divisions, Metrobús and Omnibus Metropolitanos. Metrobus
The Metrobus serves the inner-city urban area, with a maximum distance of 20 km (12 mi). Its fleet has been modernized, but formerly
in 2006 its buses were known as “camellos” (camels). The camellos operated on the busiest routes
and were trailers transformed into buses known as camels, so called for their two humps. The Metrobus consists of 17 main lines, identified
with the letter “P” with long-distance routes. The stops are usually 800–1,000 metres (2,600–3,300
ft), with frequent buses in peak hours, about every 10 minutes. It uses large modern articulated buses, such
as the Chinese-made Yutong brand, Russian-made Liaz, or MAZ of Belarus. Omnibus MetropolitanosThe Omnibus Metropolitanos
(OM), known as the Metrobus feeder line, connects the adjacent towns and cities in the metropolitan
area with the city center, with a maximum distance of 40 km (25 mi). This division has one of the most used and
largest urban bus fleets in the country, its fleet is made up of mostly new Chinese Yutong
buses, but as well older Busscar buses. In 2008 the Cuban government invested millions
of dollars for the acquisition of 1,500 new Yutong urban buses.===Airports===
Havana is served by José Martí International Airport. The Airport lies about 11 kilometres (7 mi)
south of the city center, in the municipality of Boyeros, and is the main hub for the country’s
flag carrier Cubana de Aviación. The airport is Cuba’s main international and
domestic gateway, it connects Havana with the rest of the Caribbean, North, Central
and South America, Europe and one destination in Africa. The city is also served by Playa Baracoa Airport
which is small airport to the west of city used for some domestic flights, primarily
Aerogaviota.===Rail===Havana has a network of suburban, interurban
and long-distance rail lines. The railways are nationalised and run by the
FFCC (Ferrocarriles de Cuba – Railways of Cuba). The FFCC connects Havana with all the provinces
of Cuba. The main railway stations are: Central Rail
Station, La Coubre Rail Station, Casablanca Station, and Estación de Tulipán. In 2004 the annual passenger volume was some
11 million, but demand is estimated at two-and-a-half to three times this value, with the busiest
route being between Havana and Santiago de Cuba, some 836 kilometres (519 mi) apart by
rail. In 2000 the Union de Ferrocarriles de Cuba
bought French first class airconditioned coaches. In the 1980s there were plans for a Metro
system in Havana similar to Moscow’s, as a result of the Soviet Union influence in Cuba
at the time. The studies of geology and finance made by
Cuban, Czech and Soviet specialists were already well advanced in the 1980s. The Cuban press showed the construction project
and the course route, linking municipalities and neighborhoods in the capital. In the late 1980s the project had already
begun, each mile of track was worth a million dollars at the time, but with the fall of
the Soviet Union in 1991 the project was later dropped.===Interurban (tram)===
An interurban line, known as the Hershey Electric Railway, built in 1917 runs from Casablanca
(across the harbor from Old Havana) to Hershey and on to Matanzas.===Ferry===
Ferries connect Old Havana with Regla and Casablanca, leaving every 10–15 minutes
from Muelle Luz (at the foot of Santa Clara Street). The fare is CUP 0.20¢.===Roads===The city’s road network is quite extensive, and
has broad avenues, main streets and major access roads to the city such as the Autopista
Nacional (A1), Carretera Central and Via Blanca. The road network has been under construction
and growth since the colonial era, is currently undergoing a major deterioration due to low
maintenance.Motorways (autopistas) include: A1 – Autopista Nacional, from Havana to
Santa Clara and Sancti Spiritus, with additional short sections near Santiago and Guantanamo
A4 – Autopista Este-Oeste, from Havana to Pinar del Río
Via Blanca, to Matanzas and Varadero Havana ring road (Spanish: Primer anillo),
which starts at a tunnel under the entrance to Havana Harbor
Autopista del Mediodia, from Havana to San Antonio de los Baños
an autopista from Havana to Melena del Sur an autopista from Havana to Mariel==
Administration==The current mayor of Havana (President of
the People’s Power Provincial Assembly) is Marta Hernández Romero, she was elected on
March 5, 2011.The city is administered by a city-provincial council, with a mayor as
chief administrative officer, thus Havana functions as both a city and a province. The city has little autonomy and is dependent
upon the national government, particularly, for much of its budgetary and overall political
direction. The national government is headquartered in
Havana and plays an extremely visible role in the city’s life. Moreover, the all-embracing authority of many
national institutions has led to a declining role for the city government, which, nevertheless,
still provides much of the essential services and has competences in education, health care,
city public transport, garbage collection, small industry, agriculture, etc. Voters elect delegates to Municipal Assemblies
in competitive elections. There is only one political party, the Communist
Party, but since there must be a minimum of two candidates, members of the Communist Party
often run against each other. Candidates are not required to be members
of the party. They are nominated directly by citizens in
open meetings within each election district. Municipal Assembly delegates in turn elect
members of the Provincial Assembly, which in Havana serves roughly as the City Council;
its president functions as the Mayor. There are direct elections for deputies to
the National Assembly based on slates, and a portion of the candidates is nominated at
the local level. The People’s Councils (Consejos Populares)
consist of local municipal delegates who elect a full-time representative to preside over
the body. In addition, there is participation from “mass
organisations” and representatives of local government agencies, industries and services. The 105 People’s Councils in Havana cover
an average of 20,000 residents. Havana city borders are contiguous with the
Mayabeque Province on the south and east and to Artemisa Province on the west, since former
La Habana Province (rural) was abolished in 2010.==Infrastructure=====Education===The national government assumes all responsibility
for education, and there are adequate primary, secondary, and vocational training schools
throughout Cuba. The schools are of varying quality and education
is free and compulsory at all levels except higher learning, which is also free. The University of Havana, located in the Vedado
section of Havana, was established in 1728 and was regarded as a leading institution
of higher learning in the Western Hemisphere. Soon after the Revolution, the university,
as well as all other educational institutions, were nationalized. Since then several other universities have
opened, like the Higher Learning Polytechnic Institute José Antonio Echeverría where
the vast majority of today’s Cuban engineers are taught. The Cuban National Ballet School with 4,350
students is one of the largest ballet schools in the world and the most prestigious ballet
school in Cuba.===Health===All Cuban residents have free access to health
care in hospitals, local polyclinics, and neighborhood family doctors who serve on average
170 families each, which is one of the highest doctor-to-patient ratio in the world. However, the health system has suffered from
shortages of supplies, equipment and medications caused by ending of the Soviet Union subsidies
in the early 1990’s and the US embargo. Nevertheless, Havana’s infant mortality rate
in 2009 was 4.9 per 1,000 live births, 5.12 in the country as a whole, which is lower
than many developed nations, and the lowest in the developing world. Administration of the health care system for
the nation is centered largely in Havana. Hospitals in Havana are run by the national
government, and citizens are assigned hospitals and clinics to which they may go for attention.===Services===
Utility services are under the control of several nationalized state enterprises that
have developed since the Cuban revolution. Water, electricity, and sewage service are
administered in this fashion. Electricity is supplied by generators that
are fueled with oil. Much of the original power plant installations,
which operated before the Revolutionary government assumed control, have become somewhat outdated. Electrical blackouts occurred, prompting the
national government in 1986 to allocate the equivalent of $25,000,000 to modernize the
electrical system.==Sports==
Many Cubans are avid sports fans who particularly favour baseball. Havana’s team in the Cuban National Series
is Industriales. FCBA. The city has several large sports stadiums,
the largest one is the Estadio Latinoamericano. Admission to sporting events is generally
free, and impromptu games are played in neighborhoods throughout the city. Social clubs at the beaches provide facilities
for water sports and include restaurants and dance halls. Havana was host to the 11th Pan American Games
in 1991. Stadiums and facilities for this were built
in the relatively unpopulated eastern suburbs. Havana was host to the 1992 IAAF World Cup
in Athletics. Havana was an applicant to host the 2008 Summer
Olympic Games and 2012 Summer Olympic Games, but was not shortlisted.==Notable people==Notable people originally from Havana:==International relations=====
Diplomatic offices===As Cuba’s national capital and seat of government,
Havana hosts 88 embassies (including the papal apostolic nunciature, traditionally manned
by a titular archbishop). Furthermore, there are 11 consulates(-general)
and a trade office. Embassies===
Twin towns – sister cities===Havana is twinned with: Note: Some of the city’s municipalities are
also twinned to small cities or districts of other big cities, for details see their
respective articles.==In popular culture==
Havana is a primary location and the first city able to be visited in the 2013 video
game Assassin’s Creed IV: Black Flag. The game portrays the city as it existed during
the Golden Age of Piracy. In the summer 2017, a Cuban-born American
singer, Camila Cabello, released the song named “Havana” and became a worldwide hit.==See also==Largest cities in the Americas
List of cities in the Caribbean==Notes

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