Sega and More Mature Video Games: Crash Course Games #8

Sega and More Mature Video Games: Crash Course Games #8


Hi, I’m André Meadows and this is Crash Course Games.
So we finished the last episode nearing the end of the 1980s,
and Nintendo was dominating the US and Japanese home console markets.
But, with the video game business being a capitalistic enterprise and all, competition was on the rise.
The 90s was the third decade of modern video games,
and, like the First Console War between Atari, Mattel, and Coleco, competition drove innovation and better games.
These new competitors were filling the hole left from the crash of the 80s,
but also targeting an older and more mature audience.
In the 1990s, players started seeing first person shooters, fighting games,
and lots and lots of sports games.
And today we are going to focus on the entrance of one company in particular
that prompted this innovation and the war that came with it.
Sega!
[Theme Music]
So the Sega Corporation of Japan had entered the North American home console market in 1986 with its Sega Master System
which desperately wanted to compete with the NES but never managed to capture much market share.
But before we get ahead of ourselves, I want to take a second here to talk about Sega.
Sega sounds like a quintessential Japanese company but, actually, it was founded in the United States.
By Americans.
The company moved to Tokyo after World War 2 in focus on operating slot machines
and coin-operated games on US military bases.
At that time, the company was called Service Games, which would eventually be shortened and combined to form Sega.
Sega transitioned into video games in the 1970s, and survived the whole boom and bust that we already talked about.
And by the time Sega released its Master System, the company had been acquired by a Japanese conglomerate.
OK, back to the Master System.
The Sega Master System failed to really compete with the NES in the United States, even though the hardware was technically superior.
This was mostly attributed to Sega’s poor marketing,
but also because of Nintendo’s licencing practices (which we talked about last episode)
which limited the number of third-party developers that Sega could work with.
But then, in 1989, Sega released its Genesis console, which was much more competitive.
To paraphrase Yoda, “Big gun, the second console wars had.”
Let’s go to the Thought Bubble.
Sega’s first shots in the console wars were from the marketing department.
Sega ran commercials that touted their superiority with the tagline “Genesis does what Nintendon’t!”
Their main weapon, though, was the technology.
Their position as the only next generation console on the market was a strong advantage
and they kept using that term “blast processing”.
The superior Genesis hardware had moved from an 8-bit to 16-bit architecture.
This made for improvements in the look, sound, and playability of Sega’s games.
This improved hardware allowed a home console to more closely match the quality of games in arcades.
Sega also took a cue from Nintendo and created a flagship character that could be the face of the console like Mario was for Nintendo.
Sega’s answer to the dumpy plumber who could sometimes throw fireballs was Sonic the Hedgehog.
But Sonic wasn’t Sega’s first attempt at a mascot.
During the Master System era, Alex Kid had been Sega’s flagship character.
Unfortunately, he was a bland character on a system that hardly anyone owned
so no-one even cared enough about Alex Kid to hate him.
Sonic was designed to fix that problem and become the hedgehog that Sega could really sink its corporate identity teeth into.
Sonic, he could really move! Sonic, he’s got attitude! Sonic, he’s the fastest thing alive!
Sonic was meant to appeal to an older crowd than Mario and the NES and it kind of worked.
The Genesis also differentiated itself with the quality of its sports games.
They partnered with American athletes to make games like Joe Montana Football and Mario Lemieux Hockey
and licenced real teams and their players into these games.
Sega succeeded. It differentiated itself from Nintendo and was growing in market share.
But then, in 1991, Nintendo introduced its own 16-bit console in North America —
the Super Nintendo Entertainment System, or Super NES. Thanks, Thought Bubble!
So the Super NES launched with the universally acclaimed Super Mario World
and the technologically impressive racing game F Zero.
But the Genesis software library had a two-year headstart.
Many games for the Genesis were already on the market
and the Genesis continued to lead during the Super Nintendo’s first year.
But Nintendo fell back on their tried-and-true strategy of producing high-quality games.
The company created hit after massive hit for the new console.
Nintendo games like Super Mario Kart, Starfox, and The Legend of Zelda: A Link to the Past all sold millions of copies.
Third-party developers also delivered hits like Chrono Trigger, Mega Man X, the Final Fantasy series
and the import of the immensely popular arcade hit Street Fighter 2.
We’ll talk more about that later.
And Nintendo also introduced another successful console around this time — the Game Boy
which would go on to be one of the most successful handhelds of all time.
Even though the Game Boy was handheld, it had similar capabilities to an 8-bit console.
It only displayed four shades of grey, though.
Some people even said it was green.
And it required a ton of AA batteries.
But it was portable, and it was bundled with the hit game Tetris.
When the Game Boy released in Japan, it sold out of its initial 300,000 run in two weeks.
This early success in handheld gaming would lead Nintendo to dominate this sector of the gaming industry for decades.
The Second Console War was long and difficult, but there were some upsides.
#1: Nobody died.
#2: All of this was pretty great for people who liked to play video games.
The Console War was capitalism at its best.
Competition drove rapid innovation and improvements in video game hardware and software.
But the Console War wasn’t the only fight going on in the early 90s.
There was also the bitterly fought battle between M. Bison and Ryu.
Fighting games were huge at this time
and Street Fighter 2, which was released in arcades in 1991, revolutionised the format.
Now, fighting games had been around since the early days of video games
but the genre was mostly made up of platforming beat-em-up titles like Double Dragon.
The original Street Fighter pitted players against each other in head-to-head combat.
It had a moderate success in Japan and America.
Street fighter 2, though? That was a game changer.
There were character backstories, you got to know all their blood types.
Hey, you may want to donate blood to Guile one day. You don’t know.
But the real star of the show was the gameplay.
The new 16-bit technology and its advanced controls were hyperresponsive
and gave players the ability to execute a huge number of moves.
Street Fighter 2 invented the combo mechanic
and created the deep human pleasure of a well-timed Shoryuken or a Haryuken
or whatever that thing that E. Honda does when he just does this.
But nothing breeds competition like success
so in 1992, Midway released Mortal Kombat to compete with Street Fighter 2.
Its deeply compelling characters, visual style and carnage made it a popular alternative to the Street Fighter series.
Mortal Kombat used digitised photographs as models for the characters.
It was supposed to make the fighters look more real than characters in Street Fighter.
Mortal Kombat also aimed for the adult market by including a lot of blood and gore.
And I mean a LOT.
You might not have known Johnny Cage’s blood type, but in Mortal Kombat he could punch a dude’s head off
and then put on his sunglasses and look super cool.
Hey, it could be worse. You could go up against Sub Zero and he could pull your spine out.
Fatality.
Excellent.
Let’s play some Mortal Kombat!
Level up!
So when the game came out on Super Nintendo and Sega Genesis, it was interesting
because on the Super Nintendo version, they didn’t have any blood at all.
They actually made the blood splats clear so it looked like sweat.
So you weren’t supposed to think that they were bleeding, you were thinking that they were just sweating.
And the Genesis version, as we’re seeing right now, is clean to start
but you could put in a special code and if you put in that special code, you got blood.
I think we’re gonna do that right now.
OK, here you go.
On this screen, you go A – B – A – C – A – B – B.
*gasp* Did you see it?
See it change color?
That means we got blood!
So all the game’s graphic violence, the blood, the fatalities — that’s what led a lot of parents
and legislators to be upset specifically about Mortal Kombat.
It was games like this that led to the Electronic Software Ratings Board, or ESRB.
Ooh, see? That’s wh– see? That– [laughs] That right there is why we now have ratings on our video games.
See? And that’s why I could only play the Super Nintendo version of Mortal Kombat in my home
and why some of my friends got the Genesis version.
And let’s talk about the ESRB for a second.
The ESRB, much like the MPAA, is a self-regulating organisation
that assigns age and content ratings to computer and video games.
And, just like the MPAA, it has become the standard of the industry.
Now, we’re not here to talk about if this is a good thing or a bad thing
but rather the fact that in 1994, it was even a thing.
The ESRB’s need for a rating scale showed that games were not only containing more mature content
but that they were also gaining a much wider audience.
People who weren’t playing video games even knew about video games and what were in them.
Like movies, comic books, and music before it, games were going mainstream, and people noticed.
Speaking of more mature games, Doom was released on the PC in 1993.
Once again, players and non-players reacted very differently.
The game’s violence and “evil” imagery caused a media uproar.
For example, on CBS’ Sixty Minutes, a former army colonel called the game “a mass murder simulator”
and tried to connect the game directly to the 1999 school shootings in Columbine, Colorado.
So Doom was controversial but no-one disputes that it was also hugely influential in the world of video game design.
It was a major improvement on the first-person shooter
and its wide popularity brought a lot of gamers to the genre.
The game was praised for its level design and its overall gameplay
but it innovated in a number of important ways.
Doom was an early example of the use of 3D elements in video games.
Sure, some people say the game wasn’t purely 3D and had some 2D elements
but the experience of running through 3D rendered hallways was new and deeply appealing to players.
Doom was also one of the first games to successfully make use of network play.
Players could compete over the internet.
The extremely popular online arena matches were called deathmatches,
now a standard term in the online FPS world.
The other big innovation in Doom was the modification system.
Players could edit or “mod” the levels that came with the game, or they could create levels from scratch.
This was a very popular feature and it shaped the video game industry for years to come.
Many game designers had their first taste of creating games while making levels for Doom.
Wow, game modification, online play, fighting games, 16-bit consoles, portable systems, super fast hedgeheogs!
The 90s saw a number of huge leaps forward for the video game industry
and we’ve only talked about the first half of the decade!
Next week, we’ll see the entry of a major new player to the console market, the adoption of CD-ROM technology
and the rapid evolution of 3D gaming that would play out on the next generation of consoles.
And there’s another war.
Another Console War.
Thanks for watching. We’ll see you next week.
Say bye, Sonic!
[sings]
Sega!
[laughs]
Crash Course Games is filmed in the Chad and Stacey Emigholz Studio in Indianapolis, Indiana
and it’s made with the help of all these nice people.
If you’d like to keep Crash Course free for everyone forever
you can support the series at Patreon, a crowdfunding platform that allows you to support the content you love.
Speaking of Patreon, we’d like to thank all our patreons in general
and we’d like to specifically thank our High Chancellor of Knowledge Morgan Lizop
and our Vice Principal Michael Hunt.
Thank you for your support.

100 thoughts on “Sega and More Mature Video Games: Crash Course Games #8”

  1. To really cover that time frame you also need to look at Commodore computers. The C64 had a huge impact on personal computing and at home gaming. It also basically started the computer piracy industry. Using the disk or tape drive you could copy someone else's game. The C64 games circulated with it not uncommon for people to have purchased only a small fraction of their games. C64 with its keyboard also introduced people to computer programming which the SEGA or Nintendo consoles did not. Those programmers going on to make more games. C64 also became known for several 2 player co-op games using a joystick. One karate game using the 8 joystick directions plus the button allowed for 16 moves without the use of whacky combo buttons.

  2. Sega does, what NINTENDON'T!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

  3. The video game wars of the early 90s were fierce and there many casualties. You either had an Snes or Sega. And you were loyal.

  4. Yep the Sports connection was a real strongsuit of the Genesis, but that animated hotdog needed more chilli

  5. This show is such a throwback style. It's slightly reminiscent of 90's PBS programs, but done the proper justice. Fantastic series. Here because I saw this guy on Movie FIghts and remembered his laugh. Keep it going!!!

  6. okay so what "AP high school student" is taking a course in gaming? I love crash course in particular the history government and economics, but I see this series trying to tread on the toes of jwittz game theory, and DYKG to name a few. Basically there are better sources for game knowledge and entertainment

  7. the information is very good and fun to learn about but the guy is a little weird to be compleatly honest.

  8. The Sega Master System was very popular in Europe and continued to sell well up until 1994 or so. The Sega Genesis (called Sega Mega Drive in Europe) was also more popular than the SNES in Europe. The faster processor in the Genesis allowed for more complex strategy games to be played (Herzog Zwei on the Genesis is consideres by many to be the first true RTS) while the faster GPU in the SNES allowed for more impressive graphics compared to the Genesis.

  9. A lot of people don't realize this, but the 90's was a period of tremendous evolution for video games. In that ten year period, we saw the 8-bit era come to an end, and the entirety of the 16-bit, 32-bit and 64-bit eras. We also saw the beginning of what would become the Sixth generation of console games. That's a whopping FIVE console generations in one decade.

    In contrast, since the year 2000 we've only seen three console generations (and a metric fuckload of Call of Duty games). No wonder the 90's is known as "The Golden Age of Gaming."

  10. doom was never 3d it was a veeeeeeeeeeeeery clever illusion of 3D.
    watch digressing and side-questing's video on it

  11. Wait… The SNES was basically just a somewhat more power version of the NES. Meaning…. That the entire Wii and Wii U debacle is nothing new. Just nintendo failing to succeed with a past practice.

  12. mortal combat was the first video game I ever played. I'm so glad he showed mortal combat, those sounds and levels bring back memories 🙂

  13. Just a quick note. The reason behind sharing character's blood types in many Japanese video games is that this distinction is used similarly to horoscopes or other shorthands for personality/other individual characteristics.

  14. -I know that you need to grossly simplify the origins and all, but you could have at least mentioned that they merged with Rosen Enterprises to create Sega. Leaving Rosen out of the story is pointless. Plenty of pictures and he remained at Sega through this period.

    -"Bought by a Japanese conglomerate" doesn't make any sense. They were bought back by Rosen and a group of investors from Gulf & Western. Nothing had essentially changed in those years of American ownership.

    -Another point on the Master System, Sega didn't even get deals in Japan for the system, even though they had for the SG-1000. It seems at least partially true that they were deliberately building up their own teams. They managed to get a lot of licenses, but no external developers.

    -Weird timeline stuff, mentioned Sega's climbing marketshare and then mentioning the Super Nintendo, as if that lead was a very big gap. They only had about a year of strong presence before the "War" actually begun.

  15. Sega started by making slot machines? So that means they were like Konami, but in reverse?
    #Fuckonami!
    (I'm really sorry, just had to do that)

  16. Yeah, not only is the content very brushed over, the geeky jokes seem really forced and cringe worthy. Maybe I might be the only one, but his laugh is funny and it makes me laugh

  17. Doom doesn't support play over the Internet. It only supports IPX, serial link and modem play. No TCP/IP support. I should know. I spent enough time playing serial link games with my neighbour.

  18. I found a SEGA Genesis at one of my local flea markets a few weeks ago. Had never seen one in person. Thing isn't even from my generation. Somehow still felt incredible nostalgia. And that's how you know something is great – when it's recognized and appreciated and dare I say enjoyed many decades after its release, by not just old fans but (especially) by new ones, too.

  19. The continuity between the videos makes me feel like Harry Potter in the Half-Blood prince, when he has extra lessons with Dumbledore… like they were a "Crash Course Lord Voldemort" thing, complete with the thought bubble (the pensieve) and stuff… It's kinda cool !

  20. It would have been nice if you mentioned that Doom gave rise to the game engine. You sort of said that with the mods but it's the game engine that allowed mods. Maybe you should do an episode on game engines since they really helped with the creation of games, modern games and will be used forever as long as video games exist.

  21. 8:28 Wow, that guy must be a psychic if he was a part of the initial uproar over the release of a 1993 game as you seem to be implying.

  22. I can't help but wonder how this CC series would look/sound if it was presented by the AVGN. If you don't know who he is you need not talk about games of this era.

  23. My first console at the age of 6 was the Sega Genesis! Man, nostalgia for my Jurassic Park, Aladdin, and Lion King games.

  24. populous the beginning was my fav and i come from 1998 but fortunately i had some older brothers and they shown me much games i can remember Floppy disk and win 98 and supper lol fun part Also no micro transactions!!!!!!
    (o the good old days )
    ps go to my channel for risk type of games or rts tbs rpg fps ect

  25. well actually, doom wasn't 3d, the maps were 2d but they were displayed in 3d, so really it's a 2d shooter played in 3d

  26. Who still remembers the old "K-A" ESRB rating? Starfox 64 was one of the last major releases to sport this rating before the ESRB rebranded it to "E" in 1998.

  27. the origiall doom was mostly 2D system emulating a 3D feel. back then computers couldn't process actual 3D, so id came up with a creative and interesting method. they used line tracing (or ray casting), which is basically a straight line starting at the player location and ending when it hits something, firing a few times a second (like 30 for example). they used this to calculate the distance between the player and the edge of the wall in the 2D level map and "morph" it to simulate a depth perception in a 3D environment. that's why you can't aim up or down. the game code only uses 2 axis. up or down wasn't an option.

  28. Doom is still indicated in some countries until this day. Still everyone had Doom. Prohibiting something only makes it more interesting.

  29. See, this thing about "violent video games causing violence" just doesn't hold up to scrutiny. There are waaaaay too many people who play violent video games who lead perfectly normal, nonviolent lives, for that to be true. And if someone actually did cause violence because of a violent video game, they are the outlier and need to get their mental health checked out. Not bashing mentally ill people. Just saying.

  30. Lol I still am trying to find time to play Wolfenstein, after playing the classic exciting hack by Wisdom Tree: Super 3D Noah’s Ark.

    The first time Nintendo and SEGA went to court was over the issue of Mortal Combat and its blood, after listening to both sides of the debate we must be honest both sides were just as bloody. SEGAs president was correct in fact the NES and SNES zappers can be just as bloody so neither one is innocent.

  31. Blood groups are treated rather like star signs in parts of South East Asia (if someone asks you your blood group in Korea, they fancy you). There was a similar but Westernised idea in the earlier arcade game Nemesis, where you could enter your star sign with a high score.
    Wolf/Doom/Quake (and the earlier CGA 16-colour Catacombs Abyss 3D) actually significantly drove commercial uptake of hardware like maths co-processors and GPUs. These games were the Crysis of their day. They also drove even non-game programmers to get really tight and program "at the metal" to save every possible CPU cycle. We have a lot to thank id for.

  32. The Genesis was and wasn't the only 16 bit system out in 89/90 the NEC TurboGrafx 16 came out around the same time. It's an interesting system that had an 8bit CPU and 16bit GPU. Nec was also the first to use CDROMS for games.

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