Games are bigger and more complex now than they’ve ever been.

“XBOX ONE X, the most powerful console ever made.”

“It’s 4 times more powerful than the XBOX ONE X.”

“The massive local storage.”

“6 teraflop GPU.”

“With HDR and surround sound.”

“Up to 20% faster per frame.”

“Up to 120 frames per second.”

“More immersion…”[blended audio about computer specs]

“…Open world video gaming.”

But what if I told you that this (high-pitched “ya-hooh!”), is the world’s most complex game?

*Intro*

Hello, Internet, welcome to Game Theory,

the shell jump of YouTube shows.

Seriously, we are exactly like a shell jump.

Takes a little bit of work to fully get used to but once you get it, you feel awesome!

and you look super stylish when you do it. And by do it I mean talk about theories on your favorite video games.

Impress your friends with your knowledge, probably annoy them a little bit.

But you know what? They’re annoyed because they thought what you had to offer was pretty cool,

at least, I could only assume that’s why they are annoyed.

ANYWAY,

Speaking of shell jumps,

that is a not-so-elegant way segue into the fact that Super Mario Maker 2 is releasing like,

NOW!

I cannot tell you how excited I am for this game.

Infinite Mario levels at whatever difficulty I want, whenever and

wherever I want on the switch.

Take my money, Nintendo!

For the last time, you fools! You’ve given me the Mario game to end all Mario games. Teach a man to fish, he eats forever.

Give the man Mario Maker on a portable console,

and he plays for a lifetime while only paying for the game ONCE. In a year full of, well…

in a year that’s devoid of really big releases

that doesn’t have a lot going for it. Mario Maker is still

a shining beacon of hope not just for me as a gamer,

but for literally every other gaming YouTuber whose thumbnails don’t have #1 Victory Royale

plastered in the corner or ninjas face somewhere.

Now the last time we talked about Mario Maker we discovered just how gigantic of a game this is.

The number of possible levels in Mario Maker is so big that it can

barely fit on screen.

A number so large it was more than the number of atoms in the known universe.

A number SO massive we had to give it its own name: the Marioplex.

But instead of doing the same calculation to see how much bigger this new game is,

I actually wanted to ask a different question this time.

Not how big super Mario Maker is, but rather how complex it is.

Now that might seem like I’m just splitting hairs but think about it this way:

I can throw in a math equation that combines really big numbers or

mixes in some exponents.

But even someone with basic math skills could solve it with the basic principles of addition and multiplication.

Adding in layers of parentheses within parentheses in that math equation though,

addition and then an exponent for instance, now that makes the problem more complex.

And complexity matters, because in some ways, it’s a measure of how smart a game is.

And when you actually look at super Mario Maker that way,

not only is it one of the biggest games of all time,

but it’s also one of the smartest games of all time.

And to show that we actually built a computer inside of Mario Maker.

You see, the true measure of a game’s complexity isn’t just in presenting you with problems to solve,

it’s in the game’s ability to solve the problems on its own.

Video games are, at their core, just a computer programs, right,

programs built to execute code that takes you on grand adventures.

But when you’re suddenly able to build an actual, working, functional computer INSIDE of a video game,

well, now you’ve unlocked something that’s a lot more significant.

You’ve created something that can run any algorithm,

or any set of algorithms.

In a theoretical sense it can run any program that your computer can run.

Including other video games.

Now, obviously there are MASSIVE restraints to this,

but in essence you have created a machine that can run the game

within the game itself.

Minecraft is probably the best example of this,

where some creators like Rick Wagg have made full on Game Boy emulators that play Pokémon Red within the world of the game.

Now, Mario Maker isn’t able to be THAT complex,

but the basic tools to do that exact same thing are there.

Which is not that far off.

First off, if we’re claiming that Mario Maker allows you

to actually construct a computer within the realm of the game,

we need to understand, at it’s most basic level, what exactly a computer is.

The man credited with inventing the computer is Alan Turing.

Remember ‘The Imitation Game’ from a few years ago starring Doctor Strange?

Well if not, it’s a great movie that you should totally watch that tells the story

of Alan Turing working to break the German’s unbreakable Enigma code in 1942,

smack dab in the middle of the WWII.

What that movie doesn’t show, though, about Alan Turing,

is that he’d already made history 6 years prior,

back in 1936 by laying the groundwork for the way that all modern computers will work from there on out.

Basically, he described a theoretical machine that could solve any problem,

as long as that problem was described by simple instructions coded onto a paper tape,

with cells that could be in 1 of 2 states.

Either filled in with a symbol or a blank square.

Nowadays, instead of a paper tape and blank squares,

we actually have computer memory and binary code.

You ever wonder why binary is the most basic level that a computer operates on?

It all dates back to Alan Turing.

0’s and 1’s are just the modern equivalent of empty squares and filled in circles from 1936.

So in it’s most basic form, a Turing machine,

a.k.a. the most basic form of computer,

needs to be able to do 4 different things,

1. Store values in some sort of memory,,

2. Read and write values from and onto the memory,

3. Keep track of where it is in the memory,

and 4. Follow an algorithm,

which are basically the instructions that tell it what to do depending on what state it’s in and the value that it’s seeing from the memory.

And sure, over time computers have gotten faster

and we’ve developed things like programming languages that make it easier to communicate with them,

but at their core, a computer from 2019 is still

performing the same basic operations as

one from 1984. Or heck! ONE FROM THE 1940s, iIf you wanna go that far back. So, knowing all of

this, how do you make a computer inside of a video game,

like Minecraft or Mario Maker? And how complex

is this thing able to get? Well, in Minecraft,

it’s actually a bit simpler to do. You have switches and

torches and redstone, and from those rudimentary tools,

you’re able to build everything from game emulators to full

on working VIDEO PHONES. Mario

Maker’s gonna be a lot more limited based

on the more streamlined gameplay and toolset,

but it too can show-

off it’s functionality as a simple Turing machine by

running…DRUM ROLL PLEASE!

Basic addition, ladies and gentlemen, I present

to you, the MARIO MAKER

CALCULATOR! [Bell rings]

[Game soundtrack]

In this level, we’re able to add togather any 2

numbers between 0 and 7.

And after a bit auto-scroll, display the FINAL RESULT!

IS YOUR MIND SUFFICIENTLY BLOWN? No?

But just wait, because once you know how and why this thing

works, you’re gonna really appreciate how crazy builds

can get inside Mario Maker. And how it’s gonna reach whole new

levels, in Mario Maker 2. So, this level,

titled, ‘The Cluttered Chaos Calculator’

was originally designed by user, Helgefan.

Using his model, we

actually re-built the whole thing piece by piece,

kinda like you follow the instructions for a Lego set.

All in our attempt to understand how a computer like this

would operate as well as just how far it’s able to be pushed.

The FIRST and most important question with a build like this is,

how do you recreate binary in a game like

Mario Maker? In Minecraft, like I said, it’s actually a lot

easier. Torches can act as your 1s and 0s.

If they’re lit, they’re a 1. If they’re extinguished,

they’re a 0.

Easy. Kinda… I mean it’s not

rocket science. But it is computer science through the realm of the video games, with

a couple of layers removed, but still. Anyway, what is our

binary equivalent in Mario Maker? One

word, shells. Just like a filled in

box in the original Turing machine’s was a 1 and the blank box

was a 0, the presence of the shell is gonna be our 1,

and the absence of the shell is gonna be 0.

The shell is actually the carrier of data

in our Mario Maker computer. So, a sequence like

this one that you see on screen right here, in which two shells are blocked

and one gets through, well, that would read

as 100 in binary,

and this gets to our first major limitaion of

Mario Maker as a computer. You might be wondering

why the calculator is limited to only the numbers 0

through 7, well, you’ve heard of bits, right?

Well, a bit is the smallest possible piece of data;

a digit that can only represent one of two

possible states. Those two possible states being a 0

and a 1.

In a normal base-10 counting system with a single digit, you can count all the way up to 9.

And with a second digit, you can count all the way up to 99.

Three digits let you count as high as 999,

pretty straightforward, makes sense. However, if each bit

can only store 2 possible values,

0 or a 1, like in binary, then our counting system

is gonna look a lot different. It starts with 0,

which is just zero. Then it goes to 1. So far, so good, pretty easy, right?

But, where do you go from there? You’ve run out of space,

since there are only 2 possibilites for that first

digit. So now, you’ve got to introduce a second bit to store

more data. By introducing a second bit, we can now

hold two more numbers. 10, which is now 2,

and 11, which is three. Once again,

we’ve reached a limit of space. Meaning that now,

we introduce a third bit 100 is 4,

101 is 5,

110 is 6, 111 is 7.

If we wanted to get up to 8, we would need to add yet another bit,

1000.

The issue here is, each of those digits takes up

more and more memory,

1 bit of memory to be precise.

Going from 7 to 8 might seem like it’s a small deal,

but for a simple computer like the one we’re making in Mario Maker, that increases the memory

storage space from 3 bits to 4.

It’s a whopping 33% increase in the amount of data that we need to store, and

a massive amount of additional level that needs

to be created to account for that

additional memory. That’s why, on the first screen, you are able to

input any number from 0 to 7. That’s as

high as we can count in three bits.

So, let’s say for example, we select 4, according to our

binary chart, 4 equals 100.

Shell, no shell, no shell. And just like that,

we see these two bounce off the P block, only the

first one can get through. By converting our numerical number

4 into 1’s and 0’s, or in Mario Maker language,

shells and no shells, we now have

it stored in a form that our Mario Maker computer

can actually do things with. And that means that it’s now time for the

actual math, which is

like back in elementary school. You start with the ones

place, and then you work our way to the other digits

from right to left. If we follow the path of the shell, you’ll see

that both A1 and A2 shells are

being taken to a section labelled HA.

H.A.That stands for Half Adder,

where our first two bits on the far right are added

together. If the sum is too large to fit into a single

bit, then that tells us

to bring the one over to the next

place. It’s just like adding when you get 5 and 5.

You get 10, but you have to carry that 1 over

to the next digit. In binary, when you add

1 and 1, you have to carry that 1 over

into the next digit. You’ll notice that every

other shell here is ending in FA.

Full adder. The difference here, what makes it

full instead of just being half is that instead of just adding 2

bits of data, full adders are now actually adding three. The two shells we inputted at the beginning,

plus the possible carry-over bit coming from the

half adder above.

If that sum is now too large to fit into that second bit

and it has to be carried over into the third bit and

patterned below that and so on and so on.

Remember though that our final answer can be as high as

14. That’s a four-bit number there,

my friends. 1110, and as such,

we have to make sure that we add an additional before

along the way. That’s the D that you see right here.

We have our input, we have our addition, and that’s basically it.

We have our answer, and the rest of it is

just destroying ice blocks to display it, which

, as you can see, is easier said than done. YEAH!

Simply writing out a number like this requires a LOT of

different functions. There is one final

snag though that we run into when using turtle shells as

our method of storing data.

Mario Maker only keeps track of objects that it

considers to be relevant, i.e.

it only keeps track of shells and enemies that Mario is close enough

for them to matter to him as the player.

In an ordinary Mario Maker level, this makes

total sense: If a shell goes way off to the other side

of the map, it’s basically irrelevant, it makes sense

to despawn it so the game can save on processing power.

This becomes a problem for our calculator, though, as all

these shells are relevant, Sure they may not be touching

Mario, but they’re carrying valuable data that we need for

our calculations. This is exactly why this level

winds up being an autoscroller: Mario has to move

with the shells to prevent them from despawning.

Knowing how all of this works, it would

just be to show off the fancy

mechanics of shells bouncing around inside of a calculator

or as a means to pad out it’s length, but in truth

Mario is taken on a grand adventure

A. cause it takes this long to perform an operation and B.

because without Mario, shells would be considered

irrelevant and just disappear from the map.

All of this! All of this time and maticilous attention to do

something a 1st grader could do.

At the start of the video, we established that a Turing machine could do

anything a modern computer

could do, it’s just that an analog Turing machine would process

things much, MUCH slower than your typical computer nowadays.

See, a basic calculation like adding 2 + 3=5

actually requires a Turing machine to do 5 steps.

As such, you can imagine that a more complex

problem like multiply these two numbers together,

or, something a bit more ambitious, create the data

inputs needed for my monitor to display this exact configuration

of two million pixels, and do that sixty

times every second is gonna require just a

few more steps. Modern computers

are capable of processing billions of instructions every

second. Our Mario Maker Turing machine is going to be

just a wee bit slower than that,

since our instructions are carried out by moving shells.

Even if we’re performing the most basic calculations, each step in the

process is gonna take a couple of seconds.

So let’s do the obvious thing: compare our

Mario Maker computer with a modern 2019 computer,

and see how they stack up.

A typical modern computer built in the last 5 years is gonna average about

200 billion instructions

per second. Our Mario Maker equivalent would take about

12,680 years to do

what a modern computer can do in just 1

second. Try matching 16 seconds of operation

from a computer and the Mario Maker machine is gonna be taking over

200,000 years. That is longer than

humans have walked the earth.

That is 16 seconds of processing power from one modern

computer over 200,000 years for Mario

Maker to accomplish. Needless to say, while a Mario

Maker computer is theoretically possible,

you’e not gonna be using it for much more than basic arithmetic if you want

to get an answer within your lifetime..

Or your child’s lifetime. Or your grandchild’s grandchild’s

grandchild’s lifetime or HECK! You’ll

barely get an answer worth 16 seconds of modern

computing within the time it takes for the universe to die

from heat death.And of course, this

is all assuming that Mario Maker has infinite

processing power. It would actually take a lot less time than

that for your Mario Maker computer to just run out of space.

While our Mario Maker storage is measured in bits, a computer’s storage is measured

gigabits, with each gigabit representing 8 billion

bits. Literally two BILLION times as much data as

the final four-digit number produced at the end of our very basic

adding function.

So yeah, I would say that Mario Maker has a few limitations, but again,

so does every computer. Every computer

, even the really really fast ones with tons and tons of storage

have physical and finite limitations.

So, no machine counts as “Turing complete”

in the sense of actually being able to perform any operation.

You could always throw something at it that would require more space and speed than it can muster.

But if you remove that limitation, that computer can be

capable of basic functions, no matter how slowly it does it

can theoretically be Turing complete.

Including one that was made

inside of Mario Maker. Thereby making it one of

the world’s most complex games.

But hey, that’s just a theory.

A Game Theory! Thanks for watching.

Man.. I loove this show! Idk why, there's just something special about this show.

Matt Parker will be so proud

Am I the only one watching this on my phone while watching dashie play Mario makes 2 on my tv? Yea? Ok I’ll shut up 😗

not to mention command blocksEdit:

Oh did i mention triggers?, look up Geometry dash Mastergame.For 8 you can do 010

KA-ME-HA-ME….

Half-Adder…

Now in Mario Maker 2, you can now select from 0-9 and can also subtract

This might me my favorite intro accually!

The intro is basically that one episode about all video games are one universe XD

Shell: mario I don't feel so good

This binary stuff is what they teach me in computer science

Since I am a car fan and there is a car in the game

I'm buying itBig brain time

This intro was amazing! Just use it all the time

Wait a second. This looks more like a Turring machine than anything. I know the principles are the same, but if you look at the basics "computer" is not the right name for it.

This is just like making a marble calculator, if you know what I mean

Thanks MatPat!!!!

With this Mario Maker calculator, now i can make my homework!!

This intro is AMAZING

Nobody:

MatPat: Lets build a computer in Mario Maker!

Microsoft: This is the most powerful gaming console to ever exist

Me: are the games good?

Microsoft.exe has stopped working2:25

That loses meaning when the number is

thatmuch bigger.If each particle in the universe contained another universe with as many particles in it you'd still have two incomparable numbers (because doing so would only double the exponent, making almost no difference in their comparability).

3:05

Only a bit. Your still doing the same operations, just saying you want them done in a slightly different order. Also you're making larger numbers which is really only more challenging for humans because of how our minds work, no harder for computers unless you count memory, but computers have plenty of that for calculations such as these.

Also building a summing machine does not mean something could theoretically run "any algorithm." To even have a proof of concept for that you'd need to make something at least similar to a von Neumann architecture. Or at least build the parts of one (you're not fitting that into a single screen) and show that they could be connected in a functional way.

Sincerely: not a computer scientist please don't hurt me.

Next sethbling video:

"I built mari/o in Mario maker two"

Mat, mat…

"Turing," not "touring."

Everyone just ignore me, I just had to say this.

(Though I would like to see a touring machine)

Niiiiiccceeee new intro

16:00

That is possibly the most ridiculous thing you've ever said.

So the universe will die in 200,000 years? OK… I hope I've misinterpreted something.

There’s also one not mad by GT that can add from 0-9 and do negatives idk how they do it honestly

Sees new intro WHAT THE HECKIN MINECRAFT

I thought bill gates made computers

New intro, yessssssss

Is marioplex bigger than googolplex

What is the yellow in the intro

M

Finally updated your intro. Well down 👍.

Who is the frog? He’s not a frog, he’s actually wearing a suit? Also what’s with the weird bios authors names in the levels in story mode? Pls make theory on this!!!

Sooooo no ones going to talk about the new intro

Hearing the opening where they're announcing numbers and I'm just thinking of BDG from polygons E3 video

wait there's a third channel (besides gt live and film theory) or is gt live orange now?

5 minutes in and I learnt more about computers than I have in my 1st year taking computer science.

MatPat you should make a channel called Rappah Theory where you do theories on different rappers.

Vid is outdated. Someone made a addition and subtraction from numbers from 0 to 9. Which can give you an answer ranging from -9 to 18

But can Mario Maker run Doom?

Nice intro

Noob : places block pro: makes goomba tower hacker: makes bowser tower matt: makes a computer in mario maker with a broken joy kon

~~Addition 101~~Addition lolthis is the best computer course i have ever seen

I seen calculator 0-9 And choise of + or –

The Calculator in Mario Maker 2 is now also capable of the numbers 8 and 9 and as well as works with subtraction and negative numbers.

What’s the yellow band?!

Nobody:

Not a single soul:

Me: dEsTiNy 2 sHaDoWkEeP cOmEs oUt iN 2018!

…the hype IS real tho

"Ruining your childhood since 2011" – the game theorist

-signed lancer

Hey someone made a better calculator in SMM2! Here's the id: C81-8H4-RGG

Matpat: this is the worlds most complex game

Scott cawthon: challenge accepted

Super mario maker is a minecraft ripoff change my mind

Now Theres already someone who made a better Calculator which also Gas the Numbers 8 and 9

Making a calculator in Super Mario Maker is impressive, but you do have to realize that there have been entire games and game franchises that have been created and recreated in Super Mario Maker and Super Mario Maker 2. And you thought Minecraft had more capabilities… you'd be surprised.

I feel like not enough people are talking about this new badass intro

What does the yellow mean in the game theory logo

I'm in IT this a pretty alright to explain it, good job!

Why is the yellow in the intro logo?

Huh😂😂🤦🏼♂️🤷🏼♂️

You wanna know HOW it works?

It just does.

It just works.The first computers in Minecraft were build around 8 years ago, so Minecraft did it first.

Nice new intro! Nugget is pleased

Why does everyone ignore doom eternal 😩😩😩😩😩😩😩😩

im sorry but XDDDDDDDDD high pitched voice 13:22

"We built a computer" … "Using someone else's design" – argh! 😀

What is the orange on the circle

Do a follow up with Super Mario Maker 2.

Monika is in the intro SUB TO THIS CHANNEL

I was a bout to sleep now I have think about, woah everything is hella fast doesn’t matter if it’s like delayed for one second

Great now I just can’t get over that I blame my pc even though if back then they had my pc they would flipped out

did he shell jump off of a spiny…

1:23

So this is the first video with the new opening.

Little Big Planet cries in the corner

What in the heck does the yellow thing mean in the intro? Novel Theory? Series Theory? School Theory?

WHAT DOES THE YELLOW PART MEAN???

0:46 who saw that easter egg?

Me

Look at Geometry Dash. Bet you can build a larger, better computer in that

game theroy

ruining your childhood since 2011

SKYRIM GAME CRASH LOL

you said it takes thousands of years for a mario maker computer to process something but the time would actually run out

y e l l o w p a r t o f l o g oI'm weird and paused to quickly do the example math equation from the first few minutes. I got 1,070. Why did I do this? No clue. It satisfied my need tho so we good I think

To me evry game theori vidio has a creapy undertone, even this one

"Play the game within the game and the best example of this is Minecraft."

Me: Stanley Parable's Games Ending.

EDIT: How is it a theory if you just proved it?

So basically you just took someone's existing level, claimed you built it, then spit out a bunch of rudimentary computer science jargon? It's very cool that the user was able to create an adder, and the display is even more impressive, but you can do the same thing in the practical world with some clever use of marbles. That hardly makes marbles the most complex game ever.

Side note: You say this is the last time Nintendo will get your money for Mario, but there's a big number 2 on the game and we already know you paid for the original, so….

Neat intro

There is a new one on Mario maker 2 that does addition and subtraction. Please do another one on that one. I find this very fascinating MatPat

Just saying in geometry dash serponge somehow made a full GAME in god and is called master game

Oh no! I need to figure out how many possible things there are in Mario Maker. Quick, somebody turn on the Math symbol so we can get MathPat down here!

yet again another evolution of game theory(the best by the way

Impressing and disappointing at the same time.

"Ruining your childhood since 2011

Dude! where do you get your ideas and music?! THIS SHOW IS INCREDIBLE!!!

I had to do this excersice for my C# class in programming school

Minecraft: A game where you could do… litteraly anything with very flexible boundaries

Mario Maker: Platform simulator

Comparing them is like comparing apples to paper clips

Imagine, a computer, in Mario maker 2, INSIDE OF MINECRAFT

background song 8:31 pls

SONG AT 8:00 ?